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Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River
By James P. Millard

Part VII (b)- 1814 AND BEYOND: Peace and Prosperity
1815- 1859

Spelling and punctuation in quotes are as found in the original. Black text with underlines indicates a hyperlink.












Peacetime: Maritime history and commerce

"The Phoenix was launched... and began regular trips...between Whitehall and St. Johns, under the command of Captain Sherman. The boat was 146 feet long, 27 feet wide, 9 1/4 feet deep, and was run by an engine of 45 horsepower. A canvas awning was stretched over the main deck. Below there were cabins for ladies and gentlemen, handsomely furnished, and in the charge of Sion E. Howard, later a prominent business man of Burlington, as steward. The boat was also provided with a small state room, a sitting room, a smoking room, a barber shop, a kitchen and a pantry, a captain's office and a baggage room. The deck was not fitted up for the use of passengers. The fare for the trip from Whitehall to St. Johns, including meals, was $10." 1

June 28, 1815
" 'At White Hall on Lake Champlain the sloops
President, Montgomery, Preble, Chub, Finch, and ten gun boats, also, the boats, cutters, etc., belonging to the squadron on said lake offered by Geo. Beale, Jun. at Public Sale by the authority of the Honorable, the Secretary of the Navy.' "**

October 1815
"... the first
Vermont had her last break-down near Ash Island and her owners Messrs. James and John Winans took out her engine and her boilers and sold them to the Lake Champlain Steamboat Company. During the War of 1812 the Vermont had done good service in the transportation of government stores and troops. Her captain, John Winans, lived afterwards at Ticonderoga but was buried at Poughkeepsie."**

10, 1815

"Vermont granted to John Winans, A.W. Bowman, C.P. Van Ness, and E.D. Woodbridge the sole and exclusive right of building and navigating on the Vermont waters of Lake Champlain 'by the force of steam' for a period of twenty-three years."**


" Col. Stephen Pearl, one of the most striking characters among the early settlers of Burlington died, at his home, where for many years distinguished strangers 'from within or without the state' and the poor and friendless alike had been received with generous hospitality. Col. Pearl was a captain at Bunker Hill, a colonel of the Rutland county militia and present at the "Rutland Shay's Rebellion,' also town clerk of Burlington and sheriff of the county."**

"...a steamer called the Champlain was built under the direction of Capt. George Brush, who commanded the vessel. The engine and boilers of the old Vermont were used and the boat was able to make about four miles an hour. About a year later the engine of the Phoenix was transferred to the Champlain, which increased her speed to six miles an hour, a new engine being installed in the Phoenix which gave her a speed of eight miles an hour." 2


May 7, 1816
The Steamboat Phoenix runs between Whitehall, NY and St. Johns, Quebec, leaving Whitehall on Wednesday afternoons and St. Johns on Saturday mornings.

September 21, 1816
"Funeral Procession.— Lieut. George W. Runk of the (old) 6th U.S. Inf. who was wounded at this place on the 7th, and died on the 8th of September, 1814, was at that time carried over to Hospital Island [Crab Island], where he was buried. As a testimony of respect to the memory of a Soldier who died in the service of his country, the officers at this post caused the body of Lt. Runk to be taken up, and on Monday last [Sept. 16, 1816] a procession, composed of the Army and a number of citizens, moved from the cantonment through the village, (the Band performing a solemn air) to the common burial ground, where the remains were deposited, with the customary military honors, by the sided of the American and British officers who fell on the 11th September, 1814." —Plattsburgh Republican

November 1, 1816
Joseph G. Totten, representing the US Government, signs a contract with three Scotsmen to construct a new fort at Island Point, just south of the border in Rouses Point, New York.






April 15, 1817
A bill authorizing the construction of the Champlain Canal is passed by the New York Legislature. Construction begins the same year. Whitehall, on Lake Champlain, and Waterford, on the Hudson River will become the terminals on each end.

"In the Republican was offered a reward of $100 for the apprehension of ten deserters from the cantonment, and the commandant of the post gave notice that he would prosecute any person who "may procure or entice any person to desert" and that desertions would thereafter be announced by three discharges of cannon in quick succession from Fort Moreau."**

"...the Champlain made two trips a week between Whitehall and St. Johns, but early in the season she was burned to the water's edge while lying at her dock in Whitehall." 3
26, 1817

"At twelve o'clock, President Monroe arrived at Cumberland Head on the steamboat
Phoenix and was conveyed to the wharf in the village in Col. Atkinson's barge. From the wharf he was escorted to Israel Green's Inn, by a company of the U.S. Infantry, under Capt. Newman S. Clark. Capt. Sperry's Company of horse and the Plattsburgh Rifles. At the hotel, Reuben H. Walworth, on behalf of the corporation, delivered an address of welcome. As the President passed into the house, the young ladies from Miss Cook's and Miss Forrence's schools strewed flowers in his path. In the evening, the President attended a party at the home of Capt. Sidney Smith of the Navy."**










"...a new steamboat called the Congress was built at Vergennes by Captain Sherman, Amos W. Barnum, of Vergennes, Guy Catlin, of Burlington, and Teunis Van Vechten, of Albany. The engine and boilers of the Champlain were used. Capt. Daniel Davis commanded her for about two years, and for a time the Congress was the only steamboat on the lake." 4
April 9, 1818
"A site adjacent to the Friend's burying ground was deeded to Silas Macomber for ten dollars to Warren Corbin and Seth Griffith for a Friend's meeting house at Grand Isle."**

April 28
The United States Senate ratifies the Rush-Bagot Agreement. This remarkable document is one of the briefest treaties/agreements ever written defining peace and disarmament terms. The Agreement effectively limits the United States and Great Britain to no more than one vessel of war on Lake Champlain and Lake Ontario and two each on the other Great Lakes. In addition, each vessel is restricted to a maximum weight of 100 tons and may be armed with no more than one 18-pound cannon. The agreement was revisited in 1946 and remains in effect today.
19, 1818

"Companies of the Sixth regiment of the U.S. regulars, stationed at Plattsburgh Barracks, detached to work on Fort Montgomery5 [sic] at Island Point, a small sand island between Rouse's Point and Province Point."**

October, 1818
Astronomers carrying out the boundary survey prescribed by the Treaty of Ghent determine that the actual US-Canada boundary line (45th parallel) is some three quarters of a mile to the north. Work immediately stops on the new fort being constructed at Rouses Point since it apparently is being constructed on Canadian soil.










Alarmed at the US insistence upon building fortifications at the northern end of Lake Champlain, the Crown begins work on Fort Lennox at Isle aux Noix just down the Richelieu River.
September 4, 1819
"On Saturday at 11:00 P.M. the
Phoenix left her dock at Burlington, in command of Capt. Richard W. Sherman, son of Capt. Jehaziel Sherman, the regular captain. It was a clear moonlight evening and the route lay near Rock and Appletree Points, between Colchester reefs, on the west of Stave and Providence Islands and east of Valcour and Crab Islands. Among the passengers were George Burnham, the Custom House Officer, and John Howard, on his way to Montreal with $8,000 as a special messenger of the Bank of Burlington."**

September 5

"About 1 o'clock in the morning the pantry of the
Phoenix was discovered to be on fire by John Howard, occupying an adjoining room. The flames soon reaching the engine in the centre of the boat cut off all communication between the two ends. The starboard boat with 20 passengers made for Providence Island (the nearest land), but the larboard boat, the larger of the two, was cut loose with but 14 passengers leaving 11 to their fate. These sought escape on any floating material. Five found a watery grave, among them Mrs. Wilson of Charlotte, the stewardess, who had remained to save others, and Harvey Blush, a deck hand, whose parents erected a stone to his memory in Elmwood Cemetery, Burlington, to this day a pathetic reminder of the disaster. Captain Sherman was the last to leave the boat and was picked up near Stave Island insensible. He, with John Howard, Harry Thomas and Mrs. Wilson made heroic efforts to save others. Early morning brought help from Burlington, Captains Robert and Lavater White, Dan Lyon and Almas Truman, coming in their sloops."**


"During the winter of 1819-20 the Champlain Steamboat Company built another boat called the Phoenix, the engine built for the first Phoenix being used. Capt. Jehaziel Sherman commanded and it was claimed that the new Phoenix was the fastest steamboat in the world. The Congress and the Phoenix made three trips a week between Whitehall and St. Johns, the fare one way being $6. As the Otter Creek was closed by ice early in the season, it was determined... to remove the shipyards of the Champlain Steamboat Company from Vergennes to Shelburne harbor, where several acres of land were purchased, and wharves, shops, ways, storehouses, and mills were built." 6


"...a charter was granted to Charles McNeil, of Charlotte, and H. H. Ross, of Essex, N.Y., for a ferry between those towns, the distance being about three miles. At first the ferry was operated by means of an endless cable, six horses furnishing the motive power." 7


The Canal Boat Era begins

October 8, 1823
The 46 mile Champlain Canal is opened for traffic. The "Gleaner" built in St. Albans, and captained by William Burton, is the first boat to pass through the canal. Her cargo is potash and wheat.8


March 29, 1825
"Died:— Judge Henry Delord, aged 61 years. He was a native of Nismes, France, and came from the island of Martinique to Peru where he kept a store and was post-master. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Joseph and Phebe Ketchum, and in 1810, removed to Plattsburgh purchasing from James Kent, the house on Bellevue (Cumberland) avenue, built by Nathan Averill, Sr., the hospitality of which became proverbial."**

The United States Congress authorizes the first federal lighthouse for Lake Champlain, to be constructed at Juniper Island

July 1825
The Champlain Ferry Company launches the Steamer General Greene; 160 tons, Daniel Lyon, Captain. The Steamer is put into service on the new Burlington-Port Kent-Plattsburgh route. Advertised fares (1830) Burlington/Port Kent were:

Four-wheel pleasure carriage on springs, drawn by two horses, including driver- $2.00
Same as above, one horse- $1.50
Wagon, Cart or Sleigh, drawn by one horse- $1.25
Each additional person, horse or ox- .50
Cattle in droves, each- .25
Sheep and hogs in droves, each- .06







The Champlain Transportation Company is established in Burlington. The company, now known as the Lake Champlain Transportation Company continues in operation today.

May 11, 1826
The first lighthouse on Lake Champlain is established on Juniper Island, guiding navigation into busy and prosperous Burlington harbor.

May 26
"Congress passed a resolution of thanks to Midshipman Silas Duncan of the
Saratoga, for his gallant conduct under the severe fire of the enemy (then marching along the beach near Dead Creek). Duncan went alone in a gig to order the return of the galleys, lying in Cumberland Bay.

Congress the same month, also authorized the President to cause to be delivered to the members of the company of "Aiken's Volunteers," the rifle promised each by Gen. Macomb, for their patriotic services during siege of Plattsburgh. The members of this company, mere boys, none of them old enough for military service, were:--Martin J. Aiken, Azariah C. Flagg, Ira A. Wood, Gustavus A. Bird, James Trowbridge, Hazen Mooers, Henry K. Averill, St. John B.L. Skinner, Frederick P. Allen, Hiram Walworth, Ethan Everest, Amos Soper, James Patten, Bartemus Brooks, Smith Bateman, Melancton W. Travis, and Flavius Williams. The presentation was made the next year by Gen. Mooers, then living in the house to which these boys marched, to tender their services to Gen. Macomb."**

October 26
"Organization by charter of the
Champlain Transportation Company. Its first steamer, the Franklin, was landed at St. Alban's Bay and made her first trip, Oct. 10th of the next year. The first captain of the new company, Jehaziel Sherman, was her captain."**


July 26, 1828
"Captain Daniel Wilcox the first boat-builder on the lake, died at the age of 64 years. He came, in 1788, with Benjamin Boardman from Connecticut, where he had built the first boat, a sloop of 30 tons, after the Revolutionary war. Like the Boardmans, Joseph, Henry, Elisha and Samuel, he settled on Grand Isle, where he made the brick and built the house known as the D. Wilcox Inn on the Wilcox farm, South Hero. He also ran the first ferry from his place to the Ransom Landing "under the swinging branches of elms and quivering shadows of Lombardy poplars."**


March 19, 1830
"Resolved, That the Secretary of War be requested to inquire into the expediency of causing to be selected, a suitable site for building fortifications on some point or island in Lake Champlain, near the line which divides the United States from Lower Canada, and of causing correct surveys, plans and estimates, to be made, for building fortifications on such site, and to make report to this House, at the next Session of Congress, of what has been done under this resolution..."


Construction begins on the Chambly Canal. This important waterway will allow navigation around the infamous rapids at Chambly on the Richelieu River. Work is suspended in 1835, resumed in 1840, and finally completed in 1843. The canal is completed much to the consternation of British and Canadian military planners, who fear the canal would significantly aid any invasion attempt from the United States. The opening of the canal dramatically increases the importance of Fort Lennox to the south.9


The North country, and Lake Champlain region in particular, is hit hard with a recurrence of the dreaded Cholera.


February 22, 1833
"The Champlain Transportation Company became owner of the real estate at Shelburn [sic] Harbor, together with both the old "Champlain Steamboat Company's" boats, the "Phoenix" and the "Congress."**

September 10
At the Phoenix Hotel, Whitehall, a meeting of delegates from Clinton, Essex, and Washington counties was held for the purpose of "deliberating upon the propriety of petitioning the Legislature for aid in opening a road (not a railroad) on the western margin of Lake Champlain, leading from Whitehall to the Canada line." It was resolved to petition the Legislature."**


March 17, 1834
"The steam ferry (Winooski, Capt. Daniel Lyon) commenced her trips between Plattsburgh, Port Kent and Burlington."**

Major Hartman Bache, Topographical Engineers, surveys the harbors of Plattsburgh, Burlington, and Port Kent on Lake Champlain. His report will be instrumental in the future construction of breakwaters at these locations.10


" 1836, a move was made to fortify both Stony and Windmill Points; the fort on Stony Point to include the higher land known as Steele's Garden. Accordingly, in that year, the U.S. Engineer, Captain Canfield, examined and surveyed the two points named with such design."10

July 4, 1836
Congress appropriated $10,000 for construction of the Plattsburgh, NY breakwater.12

August 2, 1836
"Death came suddenly to Judge Matthew Saxe while at work in the hay field and the spot where he fell was, for many years, marked by a post painted red. Matthew Saxe with two of his brothers, came to Chazy in 1808 from Highgate. He built a wharf a few rods south of the rude wharf of William Lawrence, and a stone store-house, still standing. Soon a thriving business sprang up at Saxe's Landing and continued for many years until the building of the railroads diverted the shipping interests from the lake and all the lake ports fell into a state of  decadence."**


Work is begun on a new breakwater for the increasingly prosperous town of Burlington, Vermont.

November 22
"On the Chambly road near Longueuil, the first blood was shed in the "Great Insurrection." This event followed the arrest by a troop of horse of Demaray, a notary, and Dr. D'Avignon, both from St. John's and sympathizers in the cause."**

November 23
"The battle of St. Denis, the opening combat of the "Great Insurrection" in Canada, was fought. This uprising was soon put down by regular troops."**


February 20, 1838
"At his home, corner of Peru and Bridge Streets [Plattsburgh], died Gen. Benjamin Mooers, a soldier of the Revolution and early settler of Clinton County of which he was the first sheriff and, for 42 consecutive years, from 1788-1830, county treasurer, besides holding many other important offices"**

Plattsburgh Barracks is established alongside Lake Champlain near the site of important War of 1812 fortifications just south of the Saranac River.

June 15, 1838

"The date of the completion by contract of the Cumberland Head lighthouse, built by Peter Comstock according to his bid of $3,325. The old building was separated from the dwelling and stood nearer the shore. The first keeper of the new light was "Deacon" Samuel Emery whose posey-loving housekeeper turned the government grounds into one vast flower garden."**

The first lighthouse at Split Rock in Essex, New York is constructed.

The US Army Corps of Engineers begins construction of the Plattsburgh, NY breakwater.13


August 23, 1839
"President Martin Van Buren arrived at Port Kent and was met there by Judge Fisk of Keeseville, accompanied by Richard Keese, in the former's grand carriage with hinged steps that let down like those of the famous coach of Washington. In the evening the President's visit was celebrated by a torchlight procession and illumination."**

August 24
"The townspeople of Keeseville were invited to meet the President at Judge Fisk's great, square-roofed house, (present site of Daniel Dodge's). Mrs. Fisk, being a staunch Whig, would not shake hands with the President, but remained in her room. Sought out by some of her friends, she said, "Been shaking hands with the President, eh: Shook hands like any other man, didn't he?"—Old Keeseville Tales. From Keeseville the Presidential party went to Plattsburgh by carriage."**


Plans are drawn up by Army Engineer Montgomery C. Meigs for a new fort to be constructed at Stony Point, just south of Rouses Point on Lake Champlain. This fort would be dramatically different from the old work built to the north.


"Owing to the delay in the shipment of dairy products and other goods, due in part to trans-shipments at Whitehall and Troy, Messrs. Follett and Bradley, of Burlington... established the Merchants' line of high grade canal boats, sloop rigged, and able to stand high seas. At Whitehall the rigging of these boats was taken out to enable them to pass through the canal, and they were towed down the Hudson to New York. Three or four days were saved by shippers by this line. A large patronage was secured and twenty or more boats were employed." 14


"...Charles Dickens, while making his American tour, passed through Lake Champlain...his praise of Captain Sherman and the steamboat Burlington was expressed in a wealth of superlatives. In his "American Notes" the famous novelist said: "There is one American boat — the vessel which carried us on Lake Champlain from St. Johns to Whitehall— which I praise very highly, but no more than it deserves, when I say that it is superior even to that on which we went from Queenston to Toronto or to that on which we travelled from the latter place to Kingston, or I have no doubt I may add, to any other place in the world. This steamboat, which is called the Burlington, is a perfectly exquisite achievement of neatness, elegance, and order. The decks are drawing rooms; the cabins are boudoirs, choicely furnished and adorned with prints, pictures, and musical instruments; every nook and corner of the vessel is a perfect curiosity of graceful comfort and beautiful contrivance. Captain Sherman, her commander, to whose ingenuity and excellent taste these results are solely attributable, has bravely and worthily distinguished himself on more than one trying occasion; not least among them in having the moral courage to carry British troops at a time (during the Canadian rebellion) when no other conveyance was open to them. He and his vessel are held in universal respect, both by his own countrymen and ours; and no man ever enjoyed the popular esteem , who, in his sphere of action, won and wore it better than this gentleman...By means of this floating palace we were soon in the United States again, and called that evening at Burlington, a pretty town, where we lay an hour or son. We reached Whitehall, where we were to disembark, at six next morning; and might have done so earlier, but that these steamboats lie by for some hours in the night, in consequence of the lake becoming very narrow at that part of the journey, and difficult of navigation in the dark. Its width is so contracted at one point, indeed, that they are obliged to warp round by means of a rope." 15

August 9, 1842
The Webster-Ashburton Treaty adjusts the US-Canada border. This change effectively returns the disputed property at Island Point, together with the fort there, to US control. Plans for fortifications at Stony Point and Windmill Point are abandoned in favor of the old site closer to the border.

September 13
"At Keeseville, under the weight and measured tread of a company of soldiers attending a "general muster" of a battalion of the State militia, the new suspension bridge, nearly finished, gave way precipitating spectators and soldiers into the raging waters beneath. Nine persons lost their lives, among them two little friends, eight-year old sons of Martin Pope and Richard Peabody. the bodies were found the next spring near the lake and were laid in one grave."**


March 22, 1843
"Died at Chazy Landing Benjamin Graves, one of the early settlers of Clinton county, residing in the towns of Plattsburgh, Altona, Champlain and Chazy. In the Revolution he served for over three years as a body servant of Gen. Washington and was in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Elizabethtown, Conn., and Yorktown."**

The Chambly Canal is completed. This 12-mile canal with a series of 9 locks effectively bypasses the infamous Chambly rapids, long an obstacle to navigation between the St. Lawrence and the Hudson  Rivers along the Richelieu/Lake Champlain corridor.

September 11
"The Anniversary of the battle of Plattsburgh was celebrated in an appropriate manner by the Clinton County Military Association and the citizens of Plattsburgh and vicinity. General Wool and suite, with others who were in the Battle were present by special invitation. At 10 o'clock the procession formed at Fouquet's hotel with Gen. C. Halsey, as Chief Marshal, assisted by Messrs. C.S. Mooers, G.W. Palmer, and R.G. Stone, escorted by the U.S. Troops, then at this post, under the command of Capt. C.A. Waite, and moved to the Park in front of the Court House, where Col. A.C. Moore delivered a patriotic address.

At the cemetery, the Troops and Military Association formed a square around the unmarked graves of those who fell in the battle. After prayer by Dr. Witherspoon and an address by Gen. Skinner, Col. McNeil, the president of the day, introduced in turn Gen. Wool, Judge Wm. Haile, Colonels Miller and Manly, Maj. Gen. Skinner, and Platt. R. Halstead and Springer, both late lieutenants of the U.S. Army, each of whom erected at the graves assigned to them, the marble monuments provided by the Association. Dr. Witherspoon dismissed the assembly with a benediction and the procession returned to the hotel, where dinner was served, followed by speeches and toasts."**

"'Brig.-general Wool, U.S. Army,—The Hero of Beekmantown as well as Queenstown—"His laurels are green, though his locks are grey."
Toast offered by General Skinner' "**


February 19, 1844
"Died in the house on Water Street [now Battery Street], built by him in 1796, the first of brick in Burlington, Dr. John Pomeroy, aged nearly 79 years. For forty years he had been a leading physician and surgeon, occupying at first a log cabin which stood in what is now Pearl Street. At sixteen he was a soldier in the patriot army but afterwards studied Physic."**

December 11
"The Hon. Heman Allen (formerly of Milton) died at his home in Burlington from an illness brought on by exposure early in the year in making a journey to Lamoille County during the coldest day of the winter..."**

The first 850 feet of the Plattsburgh, NY breakwater has been constructed.16


November 28, 1847
"Death of Judge John S. Larrabee, who settled in Shoreham in 1783 and from whom Larrabee's Point takes its name. He was one of the early surveyors, established the first regular ferry at the Point and became Judge of Probate and the County Court."**


June 6, 1848
"William Gilliland, Jr. (born in 1768) died at Port Gilliland, originally named Janesboro. It was he who secured the paper giving information to the enemy, dropped by Col. Murray during his raid, while Col. Durand and Mr. Gilliland were interceding for the protection of the private property of citizens."**


August 10, 1849
"A disastrous fire in four hours reduced to ashes the entire business portion of the village of Plattsburgh to ashes."**

The Arrival of the Railroads

December 1849
An event that was to have significant consequences for canal and steamboat shipping interests on Lake Champlain occurs with the arrival of the railroads in Burlington. Two rival lines, the Rutland & Burlington and the Vermont Central, each run their first trains into the city; the trains terminating within view of the old docks on the waterfront.


The first section of the Burlington Breakwater is completed by the US Army Corps of Engineers.17


December 15, 1855
"Five wolves from a pack that had been harassing the farmers of Ellenburgh, Clinton and Chateaugay, were killed in a swamp near Beekmantown Corners during a hunt organized for the purpose. The wolves driven by hunger, had moved along the old Military Turnpike, killing sheep in Chazy, Beekmantown and Plattsburgh, as far as the lake shore. At the same time another pack was invading sheepfolds in the northern part of the country."**


July 17, 1857
"Until this date vast numbers of wild pigeons, millions of which, since early April had been nesting in the forests on the heights west of Plattsburgh continued to be baited and taken by old pigeon catchers attracted from different parts of the country by news of their location. Four companies are known to have shipped to southern markets 150,000 dozen (1,800,000) birds.  A week later not a bird was to be seen, the surviving immense flock having taken an north-easterly direction through Henryville, Canada, to the forests of Maine. This yearly visitation occurred in the forties and fifties, the numbers being so great as to almost obscure the sun and miles of forest trees being bent under the weight of the old birds and their progeny. Nothing like it has been seen in Champlain Valley in recent years."**


New lighthouses are constructed on Lake Champlain at Windmill Point and  Isle La Motte, Vermont and Point Au Roche, and Crown Point, New York.18


December 5, 1859
"Arrival, late on Monday, at Westport, of Mrs. Brown and her party with the remains of her husband, John Brown [the abolitionist], executed on December 2 at Charlestown. The party, consisting of the widow, Mrs. Mary A. Brown, Mr. Wendell Phillips, Frank B. Sanborn and others, had come by way of the Hudson, by rail to Vergennes thence by teams to Adams' Ferry and then across to Barber's Point. That night was passed at Person's Hotel, Westport."**

December 6
"A steady, icy down-pour" of rain all day. The sad funeral cortege of John Brown arrived at Elizabethtown about six o'clock. At Wadhams, Mr. Daniel Braman and young Dr. George T. Stevens joined the company. The body of John Brown was placed in the court room of the old Court House and guarded during the long December night by four young men—Richard L. Hand, A.C.H. Livingston, Orlando Kellogg and Henry J. Adams. At the hotel, then kept by Elisha A. Adams, sheriff of Essex county, the people of Elizabethtown gathered to meet Wendell Phillips and other members of the sad-hearted company."**


1 Walter Hill Crockett, A HISTORY OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN- THE RECORD OF THREE CENTURIES, 1609-1909. (Burlington, Vermont: Hobart J. Shanley & Co.1909) 263
Ibid., 264
Ibid., 264
Ibid., 264
This is incorrect, although it is a very common mistake. The first fort at Island Point, later determined to have been constructed on Canadian soil, was not named Fort Montgomery. Work on Fort Montgomery, shown in the photo, was not begun until 1844, two years after the Webster-Ashburton Treaty moved the border north, effectively placing Island Point back in the United States. [jpm]
Walter Hill Crockett, A HISTORY OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN- THE RECORD OF THREE CENTURIES, 1609-1909. (Burlington, Vermont: Hobart J. Shanley & Co.1909) 264-265
Ibid., 268
André Charbonneau, The Fortifications of Île Aux Noix. (Parks Canada. 1994) 256-258

New York District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Plattsburgh Breakwater, City of Plattsburgh, New York. <> (Accessed Dec. 30, 2005)
Daniel T. Taylor, The Shores of Champlain. 1979. Champlain, NY: Moorsfield Press. Originally appeared in the Champlain Counselor [1892]. Reprinted c. 1937 in the North Countryman.

New York District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Plattsburgh Breakwater, City of Plattsburgh, New York. <> (Accessed Dec. 30, 2005)
Walter Hill Crockett, A HISTORY OF LAKE CHAMPLAIN- THE RECORD OF THREE CENTURIES, 1609-1909. (Burlington, Vermont: Hobart J. Shanley & Co.1909) 267-268
Ibid. 271-272

New York District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Plattsburgh Breakwater, City of Plattsburgh, New York. <> (Accessed Dec. 30, 2005)
New York District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Burlington Breakwater - City of Burlington, Vermont. <> (Accessed Dec. 30, 2005)
George Clifford, Lake Champlain Lighthouses. Plattsburgh, New York: Clinton County Historical Association. 2002)
Steamboat illustrations: Warwick Stevens Carpenter. The Summer Paradise in History. Albany: General Passenger Department, The Delaware and Hudson Company. 1914. Courtesy of John and Barbara Gallagher.

This is the conclusion of Part VII (b): 1814 AND BEYOND...
Peace and Prosperity 1815- 1859

The TIMELINE continues

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