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Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River
By James P. Millard

Part IV (b2)- war  in the northern department
The British Campaign of 1777 (Burgoyne) 
JULY - October 1777 

Events at Ticonderoga and Mt. Independence
the journals of col. jeduthan baldwin, Lieut. James Hadden, and Lieut. William digby

Spelling and punctuation in quotes are as found in the original. Black text with underlines indicates a hyperlink.


























































































































































July 1, 1777
"This day the Army embarked, the weather being fine and the River, in general about a mile wide between Crown Point and Tyconderoga, was in a manner cover'd with Boats or Batteaux's; some of the Armed Vessels accompanied us, the Music and Drums of the different Regiments were continually playing and contributed to make the Scene and passage extremely pleasant. The British Troops disembarked on the Eastern [Western-jpm ] or Tyconderoga side about Four Miles short of it; and the Germans on the Western [Eastern-jpm*] or Mount Independence side..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"About 12 o'clock a small boat of theirs rowed down from the fort within reach of the cannon from our gun boats; she lay on her oars, when we saw here intent was to reconnoitre [sic] our post, at first it was proposed to fire on her, but the smallness of the object made it not worth perhaps expending a few shots on, and she returned quietly back to the Fort."--Lt. William Digby ¨

"a Reinforcement came to the Enemy, about 41 battoes & landed on the East side, where they incamped, & the enemy incamped this Day at 3 Mile point.  landed there artillery & throwing up works on both sides. a considerable firing at the mills, but no mischief done. this morning 2 expresses came across lake george with good news from G. Washington, that the Enemy was flying on which account we had a Fu. d' Joy at 12 o clock fired 18 Cannon &c." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

Burgoyne's forces move against the American fortress complex. The army is divided into three groups- on the right flank, Simon Fraser would move south down the New York side towards Ticonderoga, on the eastern shore, Riedesel was to advance with his Germans while Burgoyne himself commanded the center. Remaining on the lake with the Inflexible, Royal George, and the other vessels, he was careful to stay out of range of the guns of the fortresses. Rather than advance directly into Ticonderoga from the north, Fraser chose to go around the fort and approach from the west, in much the same fashion as the fortress had been attacked so often in the past.

July 2
" Maj'r Gen'l Phillips, taking command of Brig'r Gen'l Frazers Corps, and one British Brigade advanced to a Hill called Mount Hope about 1400 y'ds from the Enemies Works, and gained possession of it without opposition. Owing to a mistake I was all last Night employed in Landing the Guns & Stores. One of the men stumbled over the small stumps in the new clear'd Road & broke three of his Ribs: I remark this to shew the necessity of cutting the small Bushes very close to the ground where men are to pass and repass in the Night time. The Savages getting drunk advanced too near the Enemies Lines, in the Evening. This folly terminated in an Officer being sent to bring them off, in doing which he was wounded by One Savage Killed & another Wounded."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"A detachment of about 500 men from our corps were ordered, under the command of Brigr Genl Frazier, to take possession of an eminence, [Sugar Loaf Hill or Mt. Defiance] said to command the Fort. We moved at one o clock, and about three had a skirmish with a large party of the enemy, and drove them under cover of their cannon. We lost some Indians and poor Richd Houghton, a lieut of our regiment [was] severely wounded. During that night they were constantly fireing [sic] on us from under cover of their guns, where they well knew we could not follow them. Our out sentries and theirs were very near each other, and sleep was a stranger to us. We had but two 6 pounders with us, the road not being cut for a large gun. We fired two evening guns to make them believe there were two Brigades on the ground, and also caused our drums to beat to alarm them in the Fort."--Lt. William Digby ¨

"a large reinforcement came to the Enemy, about 1 o clock they attacked our lines after driving in our piquet of which they killed one Lieut. of warners, 4 privats & wounded 11 others. the Enemys Loss not known. this morning the block house & Mill burnt and the party got in Safe. the Enemy all round us & very bold firing away." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Burgoyne with his troops reached the top of a ridge two miles west of the fort and called it Mount Hope, because he hoped to capture Carillon soon. At Crown Point, "for something more than a week" the greater part of the army enjoyed social entertainments and evening parties given by the Baroness Riedesel, Lady Harriet Ackland and others in their marquees."**

July 3
"... they opened a nine pound battery on us, and by the direction of their shot, they must have seen our 6 pounders, as they killed a man and horse harnessed, in the carriage of the gun, on which we were obliged to move them under cover of a small hill. During the day they killed a few of our men, and some balls went through our tents, their ground commanding ours."--Lt. William Digby

"the enemy throwing up one battery in front of ye french lines. a move in front of the Jersey battery across the water & very peacible all day. Took down ye Block house on the Mount & began a Magazine. Col. Bellows' Came in with 800 Men & 80 head of Cattle besides Sheep, a fine reinforcement at this Time when we are surrounded by our enemy, which I pray God may be Scattered." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 4
"Before day light, we shifted our camp farther back a small way from the range of their shot, until our 12 pounders could come up to play on them in return...About noon we took possession of Sugar loaf hill on which a battery was immediately ordered to be raised. It was a post of great consequence, as it commanded a great part of the works of Ticonderoga, all their vessels, and likewise afforded us the means of cutting off their communication with Fort Independent, a place also of great strength and the works very extensive..."--Lt. William Digby

"The Artificers were employed in repairing the Bridge at the Saw Mills burnt by the Enemy, and making a Road to the top of a high Mountain called Sugar Loaf Hill. This height commands both Mount Independence, and Tyconderoga-- The former at a distance of 1600 Yards, and the latter at 1400."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"puting up the Block house, moving som Cannon, laying platforms & prepairing for the Seige, the enemy Numerous & bold." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Burgoyne with cannon chained to the rocks and troops in readiness on the summit of Sugar Loaf changes the name to Mount Defiance."**

July 5
"Two Medium 12 Pounders were landed and taken up Sugar Loaf Hill, and a working party of 400 men, order'd from the Right Wing in order to erect a Battery the next evening. About the middle of this day, two of our Gun Boats were order'd to proceed towards the Enemies Works 'till fired upon, in order to form a judgment of the number of Guns bearing on the Water... During this night the Rebels about 3 or 4 Thousand in number abandon'd their Works at Tyconderoga and Mount Independence leaving behind them all the Guns, Stores, and Provisions, except 300 Barrels of Powder on board one of their Vessels; a large Detachment of them proceeding towards Huberton and the rest embarking on board their Vessels, and Batteaux's proceeded towards Skeensborough."--Hadden ‡

"...on the night of the 5th they set fire to several parts of the garrison, kept a constant fire of great guns the whole night, and under the protection of that fire, and clouds of smoke they evacuated the garrison, leaving all their cannon, amunition [sic] and a great quantity of stores. They embarked what baggage they could during the night in their battows [sic], and sent them up to Skeensborough under the protection of five schooners, which Captain Carter [John Carter] of the Artillery with our gun boats followed and destroyed with all their baggage and provisions."--Lt. William Digby ¨

"the Enemy appeared on the Mount above on the S. W. opening a Battery, a large Ship came up. a high wind at N. the Enemy made a disposition of an attack but were prevented by the high wind or from some other motive, but now appeared to be in readiness to open there Batteries. about 10 o clock at night. a Speedy retreat was ordered and the main boddy of the army got off From Ty & Mount Independance a little before Sun rise followed by the Enemy but did but little damage.-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 6
" At the first dawn of light, 3 deserters came in and informed that the enemy were retreating the other side of mount Independent. The general was, without loss of time, made acquainted with it, and the picquets [sic] of the army were ordered to march and take possession of the garrison and hoist the King's colors, which was immediately done...from the Fort, we were obliged to cross over a boom of boats between that place and Mount Independent, which they, in their hurry, attempted to burn without effect..."--Lt. William Digby  

"At daybreak this Morning the retreat of the Enemy was discover'd, and B. Gen'l Frazer, with about 8 or 900 of his own Corps (leaving the rest with the Tents Batteaux's &c &c) pursued them towards Huberton, leaving his Artillery which the Road was not capable of receiving. About 8 o'clock in the morning the Fleet being in readiness, and the Troops embarked, proceeded (thro. a passage between the Piles in the Enemies Boom) towards Skeensborough.

About 2 o'clock, B. G'l Frazer came up with the party he pursued, who having been joined by some reinforcements intended for the Garrison, considerably out number'd him, and the affair was at least doubtful the Enemy having nearly turned his Flank, when a Detachment under Maj'r Gen'l Reidesil (The Chasseurs & Jagers) sent as a support very fortunately came up, and checking this attempt of the Enemy they immediately gave way on all sides, Col. Francis, who commanded with 200 others were killed, about as many wounded and taken Prisoners. [This engagement was the Battle of Hubbardton, for an account of the battle, click here.]

About 4 o'clock in the afternoon Some of our Gun Boats came up with the Enemies Vessels near Skeensborough 36 Miles from Tyconderoga, a smart Action ensued for half an hour when the rest of our Fleet appearing in sight, the Enemy abandon'd their Vessels, Five in Number, and one Skow with an Iron Howitzer... Our loss was one Artillery Officer Killed, and a Volunteer Wounded. The Fleet came up to Skeensborough notwithstanding the communication is so narrow in some places that the Ship Yards almost touched the Precipices which hung over them..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"Marched thro' the woods to Castleton dind at Shermons, Hobbleton. Lodgd at Castleton where the Enemy had killd Capt. Williams we took 8 prisoners out of a party of 500 Canadians and Regulars & about 40 cattle." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 7
"After marching 4 or 5 miles we came up with above 2000 of the enemy strongly posted on the top of a high hill, with breast works before them, and great trees cut across to prevent our approach... they had no effect on the ardor always shewn by British Troops, who... mounted the hill amidst showers of balls mixed with buck shot, which they bestowed plentifully amongst us... we no sooner gained the ascent, than there was such a fire sent amongst them as not easily conceived; they for some hours maintained their ground, and once endeavoured to surround us, but were soon made sensible of their inferiority...and were drove from their stronghold with great slaughter. They continued retreating from one post to another, the country affording them many. After killing and taking prisoners most of their principal officers, they were totally routed and defeated with great loss. The numbers they had killed cannot easily be ascertained, as a great many fell in the pursuit which continued some distance from the field of action. They had two Colonels killed, one taken prisoner, with many other officers killed and taken prisoners. The action lasted near three hours, before they attempted retreating, with great obstinacy. We had near two hundred killed and wounded. Major Grant, [Maj. Robert Grant] 24th Regiment who had the advanced guard was the first who fell. We had two other majors wounded, which were all we had with us. Lord Balcarres, Major to the Light Infantry, and Major Ackland of our battalion, with 15 or 16 other officers killed & wounded, the fire being very heavy for the time. On Coll Frances [Col. Ebenezer Francis] falling, who was there [sic] second in command, they did not long stand. I saw him after he fell, and is appearance caused me to remark his figure, which was fine & even at that time made me regard him with attention. Our men got more plunder than they could carry, and great quantities of paper money which was not in the least regarded then... I made prize of a pretty good mare... A party of Germans came up time enough also to share in the glory of the day, and the regular fire they gave at a critical time was of material service to us. After the engagement, we made sort of huts covered with the bark of trees for our wounded, who were in a very bad situation, as we had nothing to assist them till the return of an express which was sent to Ticonderoga for surgeons &c, &c."--Lt. William Digby
¨ [This is Digby's account of the Battle of Hubbardton, for the story of the battle, click here.]

"in the morning a heavey fire in the rear for some time near an hour a heavey battle, but as the rear consisted of the feeble part of the army they, after an obsti­ate resistance were obliged to give way to superior numbers. the body of the army Marchd to Rutland. dind at Col. Meedses where we were Joind by a No. of Col. Warners Men & those that had been in action. Just at night we marched to a Very woody place the inhabitants gone." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 8
Burgoyne decides that he will split his forces at Ticonderoga. The main of the troops will proceed down Wood Creek towards Fort Anne while the artillery and most of his supply line will go down Lake George (The Right).
This will prove to be a critical error on the part of Burgoyne. The route up Wood Creek is far more hazardous 
than the Lake George passage. Narrow, densely wooded, and swampy; the Creek itself and what miserable roads exist are quickly blocked by rebel forces with trees and other obstacles.

"The Gun Boats returned to Tyconderoga, and thence proceeded up the Creek towards Lake George as far as the Bridge at the Saw Mills... it being determined for the rest to proceed across Lake George."--Hadden ‡

"Very Rainey Afternoon and night." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"From Skenesboro the line of Burgoyne's march formed a circle comprehending Castleton, Bennington and Mt. Pittsford."**

July 9
"We began disembarking Guns & Stores from the Gun Boats at the Bridge in Saw Mill Creek."--Hadden ‡

"... we received orders to march towards Skeensborough. [sic, present-day Whitehall, NY] We were obliged to leave all our wounded behind us with a sub alternguard, who received orders, if attacked to surrender and rely on the mercy of the enemy. This was a severe order, but it could not be helped in our situation. We had about 30 miles to march and for the first six, we every minute expected to be attacked...By the knowledge of our Indians, we struck into a path that led us to Skeensborough, after a most fatigueing [sic] march thro rivers, swamps, and a desolate wilderness...The enemy had evacuated that place some days before, not thinking it tenable, and retired to Fort Anne..."--Lt. William Digby ¨

"Marcht between the Mountains to arthington left Col. Warner at Manchester." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 10
"At Skeensborough, the whole army rendezvoused, where Divine service was performed, returning God thanks for our late successes, after which a feu-de-joi was fired, beginning from the ships and great guns, and answered by the small arms of the army."--Lt. William Digby

In remarks that showed an uncanny insight into the state of affairs at the time, Lt. Digby goes on to tell us of grumbling about the move up Wood Creek as opposed to the Lake George route:

"...Many here were of the opinion the general had not the least business in bringing the army to Skeensborough, after the precipitate flight of the enemy from Ticonderoga, and tho we had gained a complete victory over them, both at Fort Anne and at Hubberton, yet no visible advantage was likely to flow from either except prooving [sic] the goodness of our troops at the expense of some brave men. They were of the opinion we should have pushed directly to Fort George... but I make not the least doubt, Gen Burgoyne had his proper reasons for acting so contrary to the opinion of many."--Lt. William Digby ¨

"Capt Borthwick's Company moved to the other end of the Portage at the entrance of Lake George, carrying with us all the Artillery then landed."--Hadden ‡

"Marched 20 Miles to Bro." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 11
had men Died on the road. we lodgd Near salatoga a Very wet afternoon & night. many of our men ley in the woods without fire or covering. many Sick." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

July 12
"Brig. Gen'l Frazer and the Corps detached at Castleton &c joined the Army at Skeensborough. One German and one British Regiment were left in Garrison at Mount Independence and Tyconderoga... It was determined by Gen'l Burgoyne that all the provisions, and Stores, Artillery &c (except one Lt. Brigade) shou'd be passed over Lake George to the Right, under the escort of one Reg'mt and the Corps of Royal Artillery; as the Enemy had Vessels on this Lake a sufficient number of the Gun Boats were kept armed and clear for Action, the rest were loaded with Stores and Provisions. The Army was to pass by Fort Anne carrying with them, thro. Wood Creek as many Batteaux's as wou'd be necessary to Transport their Provisions down the Hudson's River.--Hadden ‡


"On the Right. The rest of the Artillery being Landed proceeded from the Saw Mills to the other end of the Portage at Lake George.--Hadden ‡

July 14-25

"Carriages resembling a Waggon without the Body, (of two sizes, the larger for Transporting Gun Boats, and the lesser for Batteaux's) being put together and some Horses arrived from Canada several Gun Boats and Batteaux's were brought over the Portage and launched in the Lake George...

...We were employed in bringing forward the Guns, Stores, and Provisions; and in transporting Gun Boats & Batteaux's from ye Saw Mill's Creek to Lake George.--Hadden  ‡

"We were joined by a very numerous nation of Indians from the Ottawas, and who surpassed all others I had seen before in size and appearance when assembled in Congress, which was well worth seeing, they being painted in their usual stile [sic] and decked out with feathers of a variety of birds, and skins of wild beasts slain by them, as trophys [sic] of their courage..."--Lt. William Digby

"We marched from Skeensborough, and tho but 15 miles to Fort Anne, were two days going it; as the enemy had felled large trees over the river, which there turned narrow, as not to allow more than one battow [sic] abreast, from which we were obliged to cut a road through the wood, which was attended by great fatigue and labour, for our wagons and artillery. Our heavy cannon went over Lake George, as it was impossible to bring them [over] the road we made..."--Lt. William Digby

"Fort Anne is a place of no great strength, having only a block house, which though strong against small arms is not proof against cannon. We saw many of their dead unburied, since the action of the 8th, which caused a violent stench. One officer of the 9th regiment, Lieut Westrop [Lt. Richard Westrop]  was then unburied, and from the smell we could only cover him with leaves. At that action, the 9th took their colours...They were very handsome, a flag of the United States, 13 stripes alternate red and white, [with thirteen stars] in a blue field representing a new constellation. In the evening, our Indians brought in two scalps, one of them an officer's which they danced about in their usual manner..."--Lt. William Digby

"Portage, Lake George- Maj'r Gen'l Phillips was pleased to order me to choose 3 Noncom'd officers & 30 Men from Capt'n Borthwick's Company, of these I was to take Command & proceed with the rest of the Artillery, (except for Capt. Borthwick and the remainder of his Company left for the defence of Tyconderoga &c) across Lake George, and this day I embarked with them on board the Gun Boats."--Hadden ‡

"... We passed Roger's Rock famous for his descending a part of it with his Detachment (during the Last War) where it appears almost perpendicular... We passed Sabaoth day Point so called from an Action which happen'd here on a Sunday. This is the only cleared land we have yet come to... In the evening we came to an Anchor at 14 Mile Island, so called because it is 14 Miles from Fort George: Here we encamped there being only one House on the Island; we saw and killed a great number of Rattle Snakes...On an Island near this, an Artillery Man was stung to death some years ago, and that Island is so famous for them as to be called Rattle Snake Island... We met with no accidents..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"Jane McCrea... unintentionally shot by Provincials in pursuit of the band of British Indians with whom she was fleeing. Of a loyalist family and betrothed to a young British officer, with a party of ladies she had just been visiting the British camp when the attack occurred. Her remains rest in Fort Edward cemetery."**

July 28
" We marched from Fort Anne, but could only proceed about 6 miles, the road being broke up by the enemy and large trees felled across it, taking up a long time to remove them for our 6 pounders, which were the heavyest [sic] guns with us. We halted at night on an eminence, and were greatly distressed for water, no river being near..."--Lt. William Digby

"...having a fair wind arrived at Fort George about Noon."--Hadden ‡

August 9, 1777
"B. Gen'l. Frazier's Corps moved forward to Fort Miller, or rather Duer's House immediately opposite (7 miles); And a Detachment from the Army, consisting of Redesel's Dragoons, 150 Provincials, 100 Savages, and a part of Capt. Frazer's Rangers, in all 556, with 2-3 Pounders, were detached under the Command of Lt. Col. Baume  of Reidesils Dragoons." [towards Bennington].

" The object of your expedition is, to try the affection of the Country; to disconcert the councils of the Enemy, to mount the Reidesils Dragoons, to compleat Peter's Corps and obtain large supplies of cattle, Horses & Carriages... You are to proceed from Batten Kill to Arlington, and take post there 'till the Detachment of Provincials under the command of Capt. Sherwood shall join you from the Southward... Gen'l Burgoyne's private instructions to Lieut. Col. Baume."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

August 10
"The 53rd Reg't were order'd back to Garrison Tyconderoga, The 62d Reg't being to join the Detachment under Lt. Col. Anstruther at Fort George. The Army therefore is now diminish'd 1 British and 1 German Battalion, left at Tyconderoga and Mount Independence..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡


"This was a very hot day in Champlain Valley and, at night, was followed by so violent a storm of thunder, lightning, wind and rain that the soldiers of Lieut. Digby's regiment (the 53rd) could not stay in their tents and the horses were so frightened that they tore down the sheds built to protect them from the sun. Digby wrote in his journal:-- ' A large detachment of German troops consisting of Gen. Reidzels dragoons who came dismounted from Germany, a body of Rangers, Indians & volunteers, with 4 pieces of cannon, went from our camp (at Fort Miller) on a secret expedition; their route was not publicly known, but supposed for to take a large store of provisions belonging to the enemy at Bennington, and also horses to mount the Dragoons.' "**

August 15
"An express arrived to acquaint Gen'l Burgoyne that Lt. Col Baume was attacked near Bennington about 25 Miles from hence, and had taken Post to act as occasion might require, the Enemy being superior in Numbers. The Reserve to the advanced Corps consisting of the German Grenadiers & Chasseurs, about 7 or 800 Men, with two 6 Pounders were order'd to march and support him under the command of Lt. Col. Brymen."--Hadden ‡

August 16
"Lt. Col. Baume was attacked, defeated and taken owing to the tardiness of Lt. Col. Brymen, who did not march a Mile and hour to his support; Lt. Col. Brymen was afterwards attacked on his march, in which action he lost his Cannon..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"The battle of Bennington was fought "on New York soil, but largely by Vermont boys."**

August 19
"Frederick Baum, lieutenant-colonel of the Brunswick Dragoons, was buried at Bennington with military honors."**


Stung by the defeat at Bennington and increasingly frustrated by his failure to keep the army supplied, Burgoyne writes Lord Germaine complaining bitterly about his situation:

"The great bulk of the country is undoubtedly with Congress in principle and zeal; and their measures are executed with a secrecy and dispatch that are not to be equaled. Wherever the King's forces point, militia to the amount of three or four thousand assemble in twenty-four hours; they bring with them their subsistence, etc., and the alarm over, they return to their farms. The Hampshire Grants [present-day Vermont] in particular, a country unpeopled and almost unknown in the last war, now abounds in the most active and rebellious race in the continent, and hangs like a gathering storm on my left..." 5

September 18, 1777
"...a sudden and general Attack was made in the morning of the 18th upon the carrying Place at Lake George, Sugar Hill, Ticonderoga, and Mount Independence. The Enemy so far succeeded as to surprize the armed Boat, stationed to defend the carrying Place, as also the Posts on Sugar Hill and at the Portage..."--Hadden ‡


"...the Rebels with the Gun Boats and Batteaux which they had surprised at the carrying Place at Lake George, attacked in two Divisions, Diamond Island, where Captain Auberry and a Detachment of the 47th Regiment were posted with some Cannon and Gun Boats: the Rebels were repulsed with great Loss, and pursued by the Gun Boats to the East Shore, where the principal Vessel and a Gun Boat were retaken, together with all the Cannon, except two which had burst; the Enemy, having had time to set fire to the other Batteaux, retreated over the Mountains."--Hadden ‡

1, 1777

G.O. [General Orders] In consequence of authentic Letters received by the Lieutenant General from Brigadier General Powel at Ticonderoga, and Captain Aubery of the 47th Regiment commanding at Diamond Island in Lake George. The Army is informed that the Enemy having found means to cross the Mountains between Skenesborough and Lake George, and having marched with another Corps from Hubbertown, a sudden and general Attack was made in the morning of the 18th upon the carrying Place at Lake George, Sugar Hill, Ticonderoga, and Mount Independence. The Enemy so far succeeded as to surprize the armed Boat, stationed to defend the carrying Place, as also the Posts on Sugar Hill and at the Portage, where a considerable part of four Companies of the 53rd Regiment were made Prisoners. A Blockhouse commanded by Lieutenant Lord was the only Post on that side that had time to make use of their Arms, and they made a brave Defence till Cannon (supposed to be taken from the Surprize Vessel) was brought against them...The Enemy having twice summoned Brigadier General Powel, and received such answers as became a gallant Officer intrusted with and important Post, and having tried, during the course of four Days, several Attacks, and being repulsed in all, retreated without having done any considerable damage..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

October 7
In a pivotal battle, Burgoyne is defeated at the Second Battle of Saratoga.


James Hadden. Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books: A Journal Kept in Canada and Upon Burgoyne's Campaign in 1776 and 1777, by Lieut. James M. Hadden, Roy. Art. Edited by Horatio Rogers. (Albany: Joel Munsell's Sons, 1884)
William Digby, James Phinney Baxter, "The British Invasion from the North. The Campaigns of Generals Carleton and Burgoyne, from Canada, 1776-1777, with the Journal of Lieut. William Digby, of the 53d, or Shropshire Regiment of Foot, Illustrated with Historical Notes, by James Phinney Baxter, A.M." (Albany, New York: Joel Munsell's Sons 1887)
  Jeduthan Baldwin, "The Revolutionary Journal of Col. Jeduthan Baldwin 1775-1778" (Bangor, Maine: The DeBurians 1906)
The Specht Journal: A military Journal of the Burgoyne Campaign. 1995. Translated by Helga Doblin, Edited by Mary C. Lynn. Greenwood Press, Westport, NY, London. 46, 47.
Ibid.; 47
Ibid.; 47
Ralph Nading Hill, "Lake Champlain- Key to Liberty" (Countryman Press, Woodstock, Vermont:  1976, 1995) 110
James Phinney Baxter, "The British Invasion from the North. The Campaigns of Generals Carleton and Burgoyne, from Canada, 1776-1777, with the Journal of Lieut. William Digby, of the 53d, or Shropshire Regiment of Foot, Illustrated with Historical Notes, by James Phinney Baxter, A.M." (Albany, New York: Joel Munsell's Sons 1887) [Baxter is here quoting from Burgoyne's A state of the Expedition from Canada. London. 1870.]
Illustrations by Benson J. Lossing and Felix Darley: Benson J. Lossing. THE PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION. VOL. I . New York: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. 1850. Courtesy of the Floyd Harwood Collection.
*The reader will note that Hadden made this error often, he is frequently confusing East and West, Up and Down, when referring to the locations on the lake.-jpm

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