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Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River
By James P. Millard

Part IV (b1)- war  in the northern department
The British Campaign of 1777 (Burgoyne) 
JUNE 1777

Events at Ticonderoga and Mt. Independence
the journals of col. jeduthan baldwin, Lieut. James Hadden, and Lieut. William digby

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Burgoyne returns in command

Despite the fact that he had made a prudent and cautious decision in withdrawing his forces due to the lateness of the season, Carleton incurs the disfavor of his British superiors. General John Burgoyne is sent to assume command of His Majesty's Canadian forces for the new expedition south, up the lakes. An excellent and ambitious leader, Burgoyne throws himself into his new responsibilities with vigor and enthusiasm. An enormous and well-supplied army is put at his disposal. Consisting of experienced British troops and a large contingent of Brunswick (or German) mercenary soldiers, this army is to pick up where Carleton left off. Their mission is to evict the American rebels from Lakes Champlain and George, advance south up the lakes to Albany, where they would meet the advancing army of General Howe, effectively cutting the colonies in two. Another force, under Barry St. Leger, would attack the American posts on the Mohawk River by way of the St. Lawrence. Burgoyne set out with his mighty army the first week of June, 1777. 

June 8
"As morning dawned on Montreal the roll of drums and the clamor of bugles roused the sleeping inhabitants and called together Burgoyne's army, consisting of 3,724 British, 3,016 German soldiers of the line, 743 artillery men and 250 Canadians, ready to embark on the expedition to Fort Ticonderoga."**

"went round among the workmen in the morning & to crown point with Genl. Paterson, Col. Kosiusko, Dr. Crague & Docr. Majr. Armstrong 144 & 80 men measured the width acrosst to Chimney point 400 yards & the Chaniel in the deepest place 56 feet water for about 100 yards wide & then grows shallower gradually on both sides." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 9
"came home in ye morning dind with the Doctors at ye Hospital.
" -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 10
"went to ye Hospital forenoon. dind with Genl. Paterson & a large company of Officers at Genl. Poors headquarters.
" -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 11
Rode to the Mills & over to ye Mount." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Carlton had come to St. John's to bid his old comrades in arms a god-speed while Burgoyne, Riedesel, Acland, Fraser, Phillips, Balcarres and others of like bravery gathered with him around the social board in joyous good-fellowship previous to embarkation."**

"Genl. St. Clair came in. 2 prisoners brot in from Canada, they say the enemy will in fact be here in about a fortnight 10,000 Strong." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 13
"The Standard of England was hoisted on board the Radeau, and saluted by the rest of the Shipping & Forts. The Fleet now consisted of The Ship Royal George, 24 Guns, Ship Inflexible, 20 Guns, Brigg Washington, 16, Schooner Maria, 14, Schooner Carlton, 12, Cutter Lee, 10. Radeau, now carrying 18, Gondolas Loyal Convert, 9, Gondolas Jersey, 7, and 24 Gun Boats, Mann'd and armed as last year with Brass Artillery, besides these 4 Gun Boats, as on the former Campaign, were attached to the advanced Corps under B. G. Frazier and never acted with the Fleet, carrying only the Artillery of that light Brigade. The Army was now advanced with part of the Shipping to Isle au Noix and Point a Fer. The Barracks, and Dock Yard at St. Johns were now complete for every necessary purpose, and the Works in a state of defense."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"went round the works with Genl. St. Clair. it raind hard the most of ye Day." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 14
"went with Genl. St. Clair over & round Mount Independance. movd the floating Bridge to the loer side of the Peers. in the afternoon went with Col. Kosiusko to advise what works had best be done on the mount. drank Coffey with ye Genl.
" -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"The Loyal Convert, Washington, and Lee Cutter took out their Guns and were laden with Artillery, Stores & Provisions, it being known the enemy had no Fleet sufficient to oppose us: Several Gun Boats on a new construction lately sent in pieces from England, were left uncompleted for the same reason. This day Gen'ls Burgoyne & Reidesil set off for the army."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"ordered to Skeensboro to order the works repaird at that place. went up in Company with Capt Fisher & Mrs. Tucker. Lodgd with Capt. Lonson." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"I embarked on board the same Gun Boat, I served in last year, carrying as before a medium 12 P'rs Brass, and in  company with ye Radeau, also serv'd by Artillery, and 23 other Gun Boats sailed from St. Johns; and came to anchor at the Isle Au Noix, 15 miles... This Vessel appears to be improper for the Service as she will neither Row or Sail even tolerably, is large and unwieldy."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"Layd out the lines for a new Fort, the old one all to be taken down. Lodgd at Govenor Skeens Seat." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Burgoyne's army encamped on Cumberland Head and his fleet was anchored in the bay."

" 'Here a scene of indescribable sublimity burst upon us. Before us lay the waters of Lake Champlain, a sheet of unruffled glass, stretching some ninety miles to the south, widening and straitening as rocks and cliffs projected in the most fantastic shapes into the channel. On each side is a thick and uninhabited wilderness, now rising up into mountains, now falling into glens, while a noble background is presented toward the east by the Green Mountains, whose summits appear even to pierce the clouds. On the west mountains still more gigantic in loftiness, pride and dignity. I cannot by any powers of language do justice to such a scene.'
                                            R.G. Gleig, a member of Gen. Fraser's staff. "**

German troops, Brunswickers attached to Burgoyne's army, bring up the rear of the column. The journalist for the Specht Regiment writes of the impressive fortifications at Isle aux Noix, still occupied by the 20th Regiment of Foot. As they enter Lake Champlain, the journalist finds himself astounded by the numbers of wild pigeons so numerous that "people beat them to death with poles". The German writer (we do not know his name) is also impressed with "little turtles" and "long and proportionately large" frogs. He notes the troops suffered terribly from mosquitoes.1

June 17
The Brunswick troops attached to Burgoyne arrive at Point au Fer around 10:00 am. After observing  the "well-built of masonry" and fortified Royalist house here, the Germans cross to Isle la Motte where they encamp on the west shore of the "long, uninhabited and deserted island... covered with tall trees and strong brush."

"began the work of the new fort. Dind with Mrs. Tucker, Capt. Lonson, Capt. Fisher and the Chaplain of Col. Warners Regt. Mr Allen.    went into ye Publick fields." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"The head of the column of Burgoyne's army reached the left bank of Bouquet, having performed the march of ninety miles in ten days.--Wednesday, We proceeded to the River LaCole, 9 miles."-- Lt. James Hadden.‡

"Left Skeensboro at 8 o'clock morning. Dind at way spring. wind ahead. Stopt at 6 miles point, met the Schooner & Gundola going up to Skeensboro. heard that the Indians had taken 2 of our people & killd four others & wounded three more. the 2 first taken & 2 killd were betwen the French lines & the bridge. yesterday, two more killd & 8 wounded about half way to Crown point, a party of Raingers." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

The rear guard of German troops arrive at Cumberland Head where they find the majority of Burgoyne's army waiting. The General's headquarters were "on the firm land at the point." The journalist writes of the "inaccessible and rocky shore" and the "denseness of the forest." He also notes that the mosquito situation was much improved.3
June 19
" Early this morning we sailed with a very fair wind, passed Point au Fer where a Post of 4 Companies was again established for a Depot, (9 miles) we passed Isle au Mot, and I made a sketch of a Range of Mountains, seen from that part of the Lake. We also passed the army encamped on Cummerland head, passed Valcour Island, Point au Sable, Schuyler's Island and some other small Islands called the four Brothers, and in the afternoon came to an anchor at Bouquêt Ferry where the Elite of the Army under Brig'r Gen'l Frazer had taken post on the Eastern shore of the Lake. This day was very fine and the passage pleasant, the Lake affording many beautiful prospects. The rest of the Fleet were now Anchor'd at Split Rock in sight of this Post and Six Miles from it. The Maria Excepted, she remained to bring up the Generals."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"Genl. Schuyler came in. this morning breakfasted with ye Genl. Capt. Whitcom cam in & brot an Indian scalp, saw where 2 others had been halld away after they were killd." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

After a brief stop at Cumberland Head to allow supply vessels to catch up, the mighty invasion fleet encamps at the Falls on the Bouquet River. An advance guard under General Simon Fraser has reached this location some time earlier. Burgoyne gives an enormous war-feast to his Indian allies, many of whom have traveled long distances to participate in this war. In a controversial speech, Burgoyne encourages his native allies to fight fiercely but to spare non-combatants. He expressly forbids the taking of scalps. The Indians, notorious for their independence, listen politely to their nominal leader. As usual, the natives are taking sides in this conflict for their own reasons- the spoils of war. Important among these is the taking of scalps. The white chiefs' rules of warfare mean nothing to them. Burgoyne also issues a proclamation to the inhabitants along the invasion route. He details the reasons for the invasion and orders cooperation with his army. Burgoyne extols the might of his forces, he portrays in the most vivid of terms the horrors that will be visited upon the populace that offer any resistance to His Majesty's forces. He warns of these Indian hordes he can turn loose upon his antagonists. The message is received with derision in the forts to the south. One can only imagine the trepidation it caused amongst the humble settlers who lived in the wilderness along the invasion route. The Brunswick troops under Riedesel are not party to this event. Inclement weather has forced this part of the invasion fleet to take shelter in Willsboro Bay. Ralph Nading Hill tells us that five of the vessels carrying German troops were forced to put soldiers ashore upon the barren Four Winds, or Quatres Vents, Islands (now known as Four Brothers.) 4

"Gen'l Burgoyne came up in the Maria. This day I visited a detached post of the light infantry, two Miles up the River at Galinels [Gilliland's] Farm, this is situate at the foot of a small Water Fall, where a great number of small Salmon were caught. The River is not above 150 yards wide, the Troops at this and the main post of this Corps on the edge of the Lake, were encamped on separate sides of the Bouquet River. I did not learn from what cause this upper post was taken, but the mouth of this River is sometimes called Bouquet Ferry, possibly the above Farm may have communication with the Country & a Ferry across the Lake has been formerly kept here. The soil tho. sandy seems fertile. It may not be improper to remark that there are but few settlements on the Lake (not 20) and those only single Houses.''--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"a scout returned from Crown point they discovired near 5 mile point the tracks of about 80 of the enemy & saw 2 indians which they fired at but they being at two great a distance they made there escape. began the works at 8 places on Mt. Independance. I dind with a large Company at ye Hospital." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Burgoyne had summoned the Indians tribes to meet him at the falls of the Bouquet. They obeyed his call in numbers that startled his humanity and appalled his judgment.--he assembled the chiefs in a redoubt, which he caused to be constructed about half a mile below the mansion of Gilliland. There Burgoyne addressed them, and claimed their services to the British king.--Watson's Champlain Valley."**
June 21
"The Gun Boats joined the rest of the Fleet at Split Rock (6 miles)."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"went over the Mount & round the works with Genl. Schuyler & St. Clair & movd som cannon from Ty to the mount south wharf the Genl. Officers & a number of others dind with us." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 22
"Genl. Schuyler went off for Fort George. afternoon I rode to the Landing. Drank Tea with mrs Adams.
" -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"The Fleet warpt up to Otter Creek (3 miles) on the Western [Eastern-jpm] shore of the Lake. This Creek is here about 100 y'ds wide, and runs up the Country more than a hundred & fifty Miles toward New England.--Hadden ‡

"dind with Genl. Poor, went onto the mount with Genl. St. Clair proposed to make a Laboratory of the old Hospital. a scout came in from Onion River & says that the enemy are incamped at Gillilands in a great No. of Tents the Indians very thick they took one of his party & the rest but Just made there escape & that the Enemy would soon be at Ty with there army & 9 Vessels besides Gunboats battoes &c. &c." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 24
"...a large detachment of Savages and Rangers were sent up Otter Creek to bring in Forrage. The Fleet proceeded to Crown Point  where we came to an Anchor.''--Hadden ‡

"the regulars came to Crown Point." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Gen'l Frazer came up with his Brigade, and, encamp'd at Crown Point."--Hadden ‡

"the Artificers passed muster. alaremed with indians." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Gen'ls Burgoyne, Phillips and Reidesil came up with the army... upon the arrival of the rest of the Army Gen'l Frazer's Corps moved towards Tyconderoga and landing at Putnam's Creek, 7 miles higher up on the Western side were joined by the Savages &c who went up Otter Creek and made this Tour under Captain Frazer..."--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"one man killd & another scalped by the indians between the Mills & the landing. paid 108.14.8 for wine, Shugr, Cheese, Coffey & Chocolat. worked at the bridge & Breastworks." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Americans held Crown Point ... until Burgoyne with 7,000 troops invested it, when the Americans abandoned it and retired to Ticonderoga. At Crown Point the invading army remained eight days enjoying the evening parties given by the Baroness Reidesel, Lady Harriet Achland and other ladies, who accompanied the army."**

"leying platforms on the batteries on the S. E. side the Mount & driving piles acrosst the E creek carrying stores over to the mount." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 28
"the Enemy incamped at putnams point & 4 Vessels on this side. 8 men came in & report that by information from one of the Inhabitants the enemy are 8000 regulars, 1500 Canadians & Indians, that they had near a 1000 Tents pitched. by a nother person from Otter creek that 500 are gone up that way & was last night within 8 miles of Rutland, where we have a considerable store belonging to N. H.r
" -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

The main portion of Burgoyne's army arrives at Crown Point.

"a large Quantity of provision brot from the landing Lake George left only about 25 barrels of pees & flower there. moving our Magazines to the Mount." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 30
" 'B. Gen'l Frazer's Brigade moved forward, and disembarked on a point of Land on the Western Shore Three Miles from Tyconderoga from which circumstance 'tis called Three Mile Point. The Army Received Provisions to the 8th July inclusive.

G.O. [General Orders] The Army embarks tomorrow, to approach the Enemy. We are to contend for the King, and the constitution of Great Britain, to vindicate Law, and to relieve the oppressed--- a cause in which His Majesty's Troops and those of the Princes his Allies, will feel equal excitement. The Services required of this particular expedition, are critical and conspicuous. During our progress occasions may occur, in which, nor difficulty, or labour nor Life, are to be regarded. this Army must not Retreat. The General to beat tomorrow in place of the Revalley at the dawn of Day, the Assembly to beat an hour afterwards at which time the whole will embark. A Field Officer with 100 British, and 100 Germans to remain at Chimney Point to take charge of the provisions & Stores at that place. The Wings are to take up their new encampment in Two Lines. So soon as the Regiments are encamp'd a working party of 20 Men and a Subaltern from each will parade in front of their respective Regiments. "--Lt. James Hadden ‡

"early in the morning the Enemy appeared at 3 mile point with 18 Gunboats & a flew other boats landing about 800 men that marched up to the mills to the bridge & in front of the Breastwork but were soon drove back. this afternoon two large Ships appeared, one 20 guns & the other a 16 gun Ship & 2 tenders they warped up in a line with the Boats across the lake from 8 mile point & made a formidable appearance." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"The Advanced Corps made their appearance before Ticonderoga. We encamped at Three Mile Point. The line, with the general, were at Putnam's Creek, about six miles in our rear, but expected shortly up. We had a full view from our post of their works lines &c and their flag of Liberty displayed on the summit of the Fort. Our Gun boats were anchored across the river out of the range of their cannon, and our two frigates the largest called the Royal George carrying 32 Guns, and built at St Johns during the winter, with the Inflexible at a small distance from the Gun boats, with a large boom ahead to prevent fire ships coming down from the Fort. Our Indians had many small skirmishes with parties of theirs, and always came off victorious, and what prisoners were taken, all seemed to agree that they intended to make a vigorous defence. With our glasses we could distinguish every thing they were about in the Fort, appearing very busy about their works, and viewing with their glasses our situation force &c. It was entertaining enough, being a scene of life I had not been accustomed to before, and its novelty made it amusing."--Lt. William Digby ¨

All British forces in the rear join at Crown Point.


James Hadden. Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books: A Journal Kept in Canada and Upon Burgoyne's Campaign in 1776 and 1777, by Lieut. James M. Hadden, Roy. Art. Edited by Horatio Rogers. (Albany: Joel Munsell's Sons, 1884)
William Digby, James Phinney Baxter, "The British Invasion from the North. The Campaigns of Generals Carleton and Burgoyne, from Canada, 1776-1777, with the Journal of Lieut. William Digby, of the 53d, or Shropshire Regiment of Foot, Illustrated with Historical Notes, by James Phinney Baxter, A.M." (Albany, New York: Joel Munsell's Sons 1887)
  Jeduthan Baldwin, "The Revolutionary Journal of Col. Jeduthan Baldwin 1775-1778" (Bangor, Maine: The DeBurians 1906)
The Specht Journal: A military Journal of the Burgoyne Campaign. 1995. Translated by Helga Doblin, Edited by Mary C. Lynn. Greenwood Press, Westport, NY, London. 46, 47.
Ibid.; 47
Ibid.; 47
Ralph Nading Hill, "Lake Champlain- Key to Liberty" (Countryman Press, Woodstock, Vermont:  1976, 1995) 110
James Phinney Baxter, "The British Invasion from the North. The Campaigns of Generals Carleton and Burgoyne, from Canada, 1776-1777, with the Journal of Lieut. William Digby, of the 53d, or Shropshire Regiment of Foot, Illustrated with Historical Notes, by James Phinney Baxter, A.M." (Albany, New York: Joel Munsell's Sons 1887) [Baxter is here quoting from Burgoyne's A state of the Expedition from Canada. London. 1870.]
Illustrations by Benson J. Lossing and Felix Darley: Benson J. Lossing. THE PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION. VOL. I . New York: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. 1850. Courtesy of the Floyd Harwood Collection.
*The reader will note that Hadden made this error often, he is frequently confusing East and West, Up and Down, when referring to the locations on the lake.-jpm

This is the conclusion of TIMELINE IV (b) War in the Northern Department:
The British Campaign of 1777 (Burgoyne)

The TIMELINE continues HERE

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