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Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River
HISTORY TIMELINE
By James P. Millard

Part III (b)- THE GREAT REBELLION: Retreat from Canada
january 1776- June 1776
the journals of col. jeduthan baldwin, and Lieut. William digby

Spelling and punctuation in quotes are as found in the original. Black text with underlines indicates a hyperlink.

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February 15, 1776
The Continental Congress decides to send a delegation to Canada to convince the Canadians to support the American cause. This committee of three, Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase and Charles Carroll, were granted extensive powers to negotiate on behalf of the Americans.  Reaching Lake George on April 18, these distinguished gentlemen, Franklin in his 70's, traverse the length of Lakes George and Champlain in a bateau, 36 feet long and 8 feet wide. Carroll kept a journal of his trip, which provides a fascinating account of a what it was like to journey down the lakes in 1776. The ambassadors stop at Ticonderoga, Crown Point and at the home of Peter Ferris on what is now known as Arnold's Bay in Panton. They reach Montreal on April 29, too late to effect the outcome of the campaign. On May 11, Franklin returns alone, his companions electing to stay longer to get a better view of the complicated situation. They recommend that 6,000 troops be sent north promptly to reinforce the Army in Canada.1

April 18, 1776
"...prepairing for to go to Quebeck. bought sundry articles of Stores."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin
April
22
"hoisted Sail about 9 in the morning, had a big wind this Day ahead, came to anchor by the highlands 1/2 after 3 o'clock, could not get thro the narrows. I went on Shore recanortered the Mountains, on the west Side, went upon one about 500 feet high. as the wind continued a head & very high we lay at anchor till about 11 O'clock at night, when the Tide favoured we hoisted Sail & attempted the passage at the highlands, but were obliged to come to anchor before Daylight after passing about 13 miles by Fort Mongomery & Fort Constitution. I was on deck till after 2 o'clock this morning with a Curious eye viewing the Vast mountains & the difficulties in rough warter. the mountains are said to be more than 1/2 a mile high almost perpendicular from ye warter." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
April
23
"This morning we were at anchor near fort Constitution. after Breakfast Genl Thomson, Col Sinkler, Majr. White, Majr Suell, Capt. Badlam Capt. Van buran & myself with Doctr.  Doctr. & 2 Albana Gent passan­gers were our Mess in the Cabbin. Capt. Lindley & a Company of Carpenters was on bord our Sloop. we had 5 horses on Bord & 4 Dogs. as the wind was contirary we could not come to Sail. the Genl. proposed my going to view the fort (with him & several others went with us) as I was ordered by Genl. Washington to inspect the whole to the northward where I could do it without re­tarding our march. and make remarks & send .them to him we returnd about 12 o'clock & come to Sail but ye wind continued high & flawey but ye tide favorued, we beat about 3 hours when on a Sudden a flaw took us, Shiverd our Boom all to pieces & carried all before it overboard, knocked down the horses & as I was on Deck it took off my hatt with the rest, which was a great won­der no life Lost or person much hurt. I immediately pro­posed the making a New Boom, after we came to anchor I went with the carpenters on Shore cut a Tree hewd. Shavd. a drawd. down a boom 51 feet long off from a Mountain a great heighth & got it on board & it was compleatly fixed ready to sail in 3 1/2 hours from the time the old one gave way, but as the wind & tide was against us we lay at anchor till about 2 o'clock in the morning when the wind abated. some time after my hat went overbord we discover it at a distance. 4 of our men Jumpt into the small boat and brought it me."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
April
24
"This is a fine pleasant morning. we were passing the Highlands, as I awoke, in company with several other sloops & then opend a pleasant settld country on each side the river. I went on Shore to several housen on the west side the river, bought butter, bread, milk & eggs, got on bord about 11 o'clock. the sloop kept under Sail had a gentle breeze of wind S. E. we passed by New Windsor 41 & Newboro on ye west Side, Powcapsey & Lime kilns. at Long reach people were throwing wood from a hill 80 feet high to load a Vessel. a Very fine pleasant Day this. about 6 o'clock the Sun went into a dark thick cloud & lookt like a Storm. we passt Living­stons mannor about sunset. kept under Sail till 1/2 past 1 o'clock A. M. when our vessel ran a ground with 2 other Sloops."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"The three commissioners, Benj. Franklin, Samuel Chase and Charles Carroll of Carrolltown, sent by Congress to Canada, accompanied by John Carroll, a Jesuit priest and afterwards the first Roman Catholic Archbishop in the United States, in their passage through the lakes, stopped at Ti; at Crown Point to examine the works, and at Ferris' (now Arnold's Bay) where they spent the night. This Ferris was an ancestor of Hiram Ferris, pilot on the first "Vermont."**
April
25
"yesterday we Sailed about 80 miles. this morn­ing about 7 o'clock our Vessel floated & we had a fine pleasant gale of wind, the weather fair which carried us to Albana 12 miles in a Short Time. we soon marched to our Quarters provided for the Genl. & his Company. Set the Carpenters & Smiths to work making tent polls &c. we Dind agreably with a No. of our Gentn. of the army & others of the Sity. The Genl. orders that Col. Greatons Regt. March tomorrow for Lake George, Col. Patersons a Saturday & Col. Bonds' Sunday, & Col. Poors a monday next, when I am to march with the Genl. Thomson For Quebeck which will compleat a Journey of above 800 Miles since I left Cambridge, but Thank God I have health given to undergo any fateague that I have been calld too in the cause of my Country." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
April
28
"Col. Bonds Regt. Marched of for Canada. I rode with Genl. Thomson, Col. Sincler in a Coach in company with other officers to the Cohoes, crossed the Mohawk River at Lowdons ferry, went to Half mon, crosst Hudsons river & returnd by Sone Robbin to Albany. Drank Tea at Capt. Lonsons, had a beautifull Day & a most agreeable ride."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
April
29
"The Commission reaches Montreal and is received by Gen. Benedict Arnold, then in command, with much courtesy."**

"Supt with Mr. Ray at meriks at albany & Dr. Mchensey. Sent off part of my Bagage with Capt. Badlem. Dind with Mr Livingstone Commisery Gen., in the afternoon I attended a Treaty between the Indians & Inglish, present a Comtt. of the City & county of Albany, Genl. Thomson & some other officers of the army & about 130 Chiefs & wariers from 2 Tribes of Mohawks, Oniadas, Tuskaroras, onondagos & Kiogos. the Indians were all seated in a large hall, when we went in they arose singly & came round in there turn & Shook hands with all of us, after this serimony was over we were all seated, the chairman of our Comtt arose & welcomd them to this place, was glad to see them in health & peace, & it gave us pleasure to have an opertunity to Smoak a pipe & drink togeather, & then sot down. pipes were brought for every Man with tobaco, then one of the Chiefs arose & said that they were glad to see so many of us there bretheren well & that they had an opertunity to Smoak a pipe with us, then a kind of Quaker meeting lasted near 1/2 an hour, except some little conversation, Drank some Toddy togeather & then the Genl. Said he supposed that they were Tired with there Long Journey, that they had better sit & refresh themselves with some lighquer that he Should order, that he Should call them togeather tomorrow, to Smoak a pipe togeather & have some further Conversation as Brothers, & then we with­drew from such a sent (proseeding from the Indians & Tobaco smoak, the room being Crowded), as you can have but a faint Idea of at night the Indians had a great Dance."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
April
30
"put my Bagage a board a battoe. in the morning about 11 o'clock I left Albany with a fair Wind. Dind at Stone robin with Capt. Lonson, went to half Moon, loaded all our Bagage on Wagons, went back to Mr. Lonsons. Lodgd."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

Retreat from Canada

Spring 1776
The siege of Quebec continues. General David Wooster assumes command of the American forces while the injured Benedict Arnold retires to Montreal. Slowly reinforcements and supplies trickle north. The army is scourged by smallpox and suffers greatly. 

Suddenly, massive reinforcements arrive in Canada from Britain. Some 13,000 fresh troops encamp at Three Rivers. The tide has turned and the invaders, severely hindered by disease and extended supply lines, realize their situation is untenable. The Americans, now under the command of General John Sullivan, begin to retreat up the St. Lawrence to the Richelieu. By June the St. Lawrence has been abandoned and the army is moving up the Richelieu towards St. John's.
May
1, 1776
"Gen. [John] Thomas arrived and took command of the troops which, since the death of Montgomery, had remained encamped about three miles up the river. Smallpox soon devastated the ranks which now numbered 3,000 but only 900 fit for duty. Gen. Thomas soon returned to the mouth of the Richelieu."**

"Rode with Mr Lonsin to Saratoga. Lodgd at Mr. Vak. went to fort Miller. Lodgd in a Tent. after visiting Genl. Schuylers Lady & Daughters on the road & Mr Duer at the falls. Lonsin returned.." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 2
"went to fort Miller. Lodgd in a Tent. after visiting Genl. Schuylers Lady and Daughters on the road & Mr Duer at the falls."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 3
"Set out in Batoes & went to Fort Edward. Col. Poors Regt came up. the Carpenters went forward to ye lake, but for want of Carriages, I stayed with the armourers at Fort Edward Last night. this old Fort is all in ruins, & was set on fire last monday and Continews burning, last night the fire broak out in one of the magazines & burnt most Furiously. Lodgd at Dr. Smith New house on my own bed very Comfortably, in company with Capt. Badlam of the Train of artillery."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 5
"went to the Lake [Lake George] with Capt. Newland & Capt. Badlam on foot 12 miles got the Canon on Bord the Sloop with the artillery Stores, the Carpenters & Smiths put their baggage on bord ready to Sail. Genl. Thomson & others came & drank a bottle of wine with me. I supt. with Genl. Schuyler & spent the Evning. Lodgd. in my Tent by the edge of the Lake, a Rough sea that washt down genl Schuylers Chimney as we were Sitting after Supper made us Merry."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 7
"Set out from fort George [the fort begun by Amherst, on the south end of Lake George], Recd a letter from Genl. Washington informing me that the Congress had advanced my Rank & pay as a Reward of Merit. I wrote a letter of thanks to Genl. Washington."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

Fort George became an important American base of operations during the Revolution. It was from here that Jeduthan Baldwin set out on his journey north to Canada.

May 8
"Last night we lodgd at Sabath Day point [on Lake George]. Commadore Homes made me a present of 200 Acres of choice land with 2 Housen upon it, which includes the whole of the low lands on & about the point. in the morning we Set out & went to Ticonderoga Landing. (it rained hard.) lodgd in my Tent."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 9
"got our Bagage over ye carrying place [the portage between Lake George and Lake Champlain] to the fort with the Boats. Dind at ye landing with Genl. Thomson, Col. St. Clear. Lodgd. in my Tent by the Edg of Lake Champlain."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
10
"left Ticonderoga about 11 o'clock. Dind at Crown point, where I took in a No.of Intrenching Toos &c. Lodgd in my Battoe, 8 Miles below Crown point, by the side of the Lake."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
11
"Dr. [Benjamin] Franklin left Montreal to-day to go to St. Johns and from thence to Congress. The doctor's declining state of health and the bad prospect of our affairs in Canada, made him take this resolution."
--Charles Carroll of Carrollton in his Diary **

"set off about sunrise Breakfasted at ye Splitrock [on Lake Champlain] below the uper Narrows, we passed by the white mountains or Mountain coverd with snow this Day. Dind on an Island 4 Brothers [Four Brothers Islands, called Isle de Quatre Vents (the Four Winds) by the French] & then set off & Soon was taken with a high Wind which carried away one Mast & Sale, we made the best of our way for the west Shore, which was about 6 miles, against the wind, we all got safe in after about 3 1/2 hours hard rowing, 4 Battoes & 108 men, but the wind continuing High, we had like to have our boats beat to pieces before we could onload & Draw them up. Lodgd on Shore in my Tent. several Indians visited us this Day."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
13
"Set out about sunrise with a fine wind, went about 20 miles & the wind faild. se went on Shore got Breakfasted & Set off, rowd to the narrows & then was favourd with a good wind passt by the Island of Noe [Isle aux Noix] & on about 6 miles met a Battoe who informed us that the Regular fleet had arrived at Quebeck, & that our army had retreated about 15 Leagues where they were fortifying. went to St. Johns where the news of the retreat of our army was confirmd, went over to the East side the river Sorrell. Lodgd at Col. Hasels. we have a Very Gloomey account of our army at Quebeck, the report is that about 500 of our men (chiefly sick) are taken prisoners with the artillery & stores, but no Sertainty."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 14
"we wenent down the river Sorell to Shambalee Fort [Fort Chambly], Where we tarried to get bread baked, (no other provisions to be had hear), In company with Genl. Thomson & the Comtt. from the Continentall Congress, who made me welcom to this place, & advised me to take the Small pox, as that distemper is brief in this place, & I proposed to take the Infection [become innoculated against Smallpox] to morrow at Sorell , Docr. McKensey of Pensilvania Regt. to attend me. they are building some armed boats at this place, that will be soon ready for Service. I Just her that all the Intrenching tools are Lost. wrote to Crown point for all the old Intrenching tools to be Sent Down with all the Irons belonging to the old carriages guns. wrote home. Shambalee is beautifully situated on both sides the river, a regular Fort, built with Stone & Lime, without a Trench, well situated by the river, a handsom Church & pritty Villiage, the women are black & no ways inviting.

Shambalee May 14 1776

My Dear
    these paper may serve to let you know where I was on perticuler Days, as I have kept a kind of Journal as I have gone a long tho Very Short, it may give you some satisfaction. I have Through Divine Goodness, enjoyed my health well & am Very hearty at this time, tho something of a gloom has passed this way, by the retreat of our army from before Quebeck. the report is that about 500 of our army is left Sick with the small pox (& otherwise) near Quebeck which are fallen into the hands of the Regulars with the artillery & what little stores they had there."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 16
"Viewd the Grounds on both sides the river with Col. Wait & Col. Antle. Dind and Drank Tea with Genl. Arnold. Genl. Thomson Came from Montreal. Capt. Barnard, M De la Marquisca, an assistant Engineer came to Sorell. Capt. Badlam movd and took ye Command of the artillery at Sorell."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
17
"about 10 0'clock this morning I was Inoculated for the Small pox with Col. Bond, Col. Alden, Majr. Fuller, Majr. Loring, the Revd. Mr. Barnham, Docr. Holbrook & Lieut Oldham togeather in a mess by Dr. McKensey. Genl. Thomas came to this place from Quebeck, left his army the three rivers."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
18
"A General council sot & agreed to move the army Down to De Shambo as soon as provision arivd, for the army, which at present is scarce. the Army at 1/2 allowance."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
19
"Sunday. this is observed but all the men at work that can be employed with tools at three breastworks at different places, one on the point across the river. order thatt all the tool be brought in from the several works to go down with the army. Col. Greaton dind with me, & Col. St Clair Breakfasted with me. laid out some works, mounted some cannon & got the smiths to work. Genl. Arnal went last night to montreal."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
20
"we had the news of Capt. Blisses being taken (by the regulars & Canadians from Detroit) at the Seeders [Cedars] Above Montreal with the provisions going to that place. this news gave a damp to the spirits of our people as hundreds of them had taken the small pox, & others daily expecting to have it. Genl. Thomas Sick & not one barrel of provision in the Store & the men at half allowance for several Days past, & no sertainty of any coming soon, was truly distressing. I went with Col. Bond, Col. Alden & Majr Fuller up the river Sorell 13 miles to St. Ours. Lodg at Col. Duggans."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
21
"Breakfasted at Col. Duggans, went up 3 miles to Capt. Lamoureaux to see our Lodgings & returned to Col. Duggans. Dind & then went up with our Batte to our agreable french Landlords Drank Coffey togeather, 60 Barrils of Pork went Down to sorell."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 22
"Genl. Thomas came up to St. ours sick with the small pox, we heard of our army being cut off at the Siders [Cedars] comand by Majr. Sharburn with 170 men. Majr. Thomas & Col. Dind with us & informd that our army at 3 river wer sent for to com up to Sorell. Col. Dehart went from Sorell with 150 Rifelmen & musketteers to Montreal & the Seeders [the Cedars]. the artillery Sent up from Sorell to Shamballee [Chambly] where I was advised to move to prevent my falling into the hands of our Canadian enemy which some fiew now began to show themselves unfriendly. Our Army being very much neglected the supplies not being sent forward in season proper for the support of the army togeather with the distress ocationed by the spreading of the Small pox in the army, & other distempers 2 thirds, were returnd unfit for Duty Ocationed a Cowardly and Shamfull retreat from Quebeck, Deshambo & from the 3 rivers to Sorell & this Day are retireing to St Johns to fortify that place. if this is the case when none persues what may we expect when we are driven by the Enemy."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
23
"had a restless Night, a hard pain in my head & knees. I got up & after Breakfast I walkt with Col. Alden to Col. Duggans & back again to Dinner, 5 miles, but the pain in my head continewd & several Pox apeard under the skin in my forhead, I eat a little diner, but appetite & relish faild, living 8 Days without tasting the least relish of Salt in my Victuals or tasting any kind of Spirituous liquer. Just now heard that the Army from the 8 rivers was com up to Sorell. Col. Poor marcht by with his Regt to Shambalee, Col. Porters Regt marched by for St. Johns & they advised me to retire, as it was expected the army would leave Sorel soon, but my french friends assure me that they will take the best care, that I shall have the first notice of any danger & that they will help me off should the enemy persue, at several Housen where I have got aquainted these people are polite, kind & very friendly & are extreemly loth to have us leave them, it gives them great consern to see the army Returning but when Genl. Sullivan Regt comes over the lakes we expect that the army will proseed immediately down to Deshambo, which will secure a Very fine Country & without wich an army cannot be supported there. Just heard that Genl. Arnold had taken a large Store 9 miles above Montreal worth 10 thousand Pound Sterling, that was going up to supply our Enemies on the great lakes & that he was intrenching & had secured his party & had sent for a reinforcement which was gone to him. this Day I bought a Bushel of the best wheat flowered for 2 pisterenes & am informd that the Inhabitants on the river Sorell rais annually for Sail 150,000 bushels of Wheat besides supplying there families. there buildings are low & mean nearly alike for 45 miles togeather.  on both sides of the river it is level without one Hill save a noumber of warter gullies that are short runing into the river, the Barns are thatch roughs & Babel ends & the whole are built without Nails, the buildings stand near as thick as in Worcester Street on both sides all the way on the River. this Day Docr. McKensey & the Commisary Genl. Visited me, the latter said that he had at the time of the retreat from before Quebeck above two hundred Barrels of Pork & 12,000 weight of Flower in one Store & that the army did not retreat for want of Provision, it was in consiquence of the situation of the army which extended so far that they could not be supported after the fleet & army Should arrive from Hallifax, therefore a Council advised that the army Should retreat to Deshambo, where they were to fortify & make a Stand but 8 frigates ariv­ing with about 700 men Just at the time when our army was prepairing to retire, a general panick seized our army which the enemy saw, they took the advantage, made an appearance, our army fled and left almost every thing valuable behind in the greatist disorder. many of the Officers behavd in such a cowardly manner as brings lasting disgrace on themselves, & others, the Commisary saith that the plunder taken by the regulars left by our army was worth at least 2000 pounds Sterling besides the artillery & ordinance stores. the Number of our people sick with the Small Pox that have fallen into the hands of the enemy is uncertain yet, but it is said to be small. a great Battle fought but noboddy Killd & noboddy Hurt. by order Capt. Newland, an assistant Engineer, is sent to fortifie St. Johns & Capt Fish, an assistant Engineer, is sent to fortifie Shambalee. this Day they left me. a fine pleasant Day."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
25
"I was all this Day so vary full of pain & distress, espetially over my eyes, that I was able to walk but little abroad, frequently having seveor chills runing thro' my hole boddy which is very tedious to bare." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

May 26
"Rested very poorly Last night, & so poor all this day that I was scarce able to look up, the hard fits of Feavour & ague that I had in 1757, nearly resemble this Days Distress, but I walkt a little abroad, as it was a fine Day." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
May
31
"Slept some last night felt a little better. a Noumber of Battoes went up from Sorell to Shambalee with Provisions. a good Day. a report spread that 1000 regulars & 5 thousan canadians were at 3 rivers coming up on us. many of the french Inhabitants movd there families to Shamblee & St Johns, we perswaded others not to leave there homes yet, it would be time enough to go with us." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 1, 1776
"William Hay, who lived in a house near the shore of the lake opposite Valcour Island, on a tract of land granted in 1765 to Lieut. Friswell, went to Montreal to purchase a supply of flour and while there, was arrested and thrown into prison by order of Gen. Carleton. After several days, at the solicitation of merchants of that city, he was released. On his return he went to Crown Point and gave the American commander there information regarding the strength and plans of the Indians that was considered of much value at the time."**

"Slept better last night, my throat better but Stomach Very Soar & Squamish loathing every kind of food. the Pox this Day began to fill, the Nurse counted 40 on and about my face. a rainey Day. Genl. Thomas Died of the Smallpox. rested better Last night, the Pox turnd this Day, my stomach Very fowl, breath bad & my whole fraim Soar. this Day Doer. Stewart came to See me, who in­formd that Col. St. Clear was going from Sorell with 700 men to 3 rivers. a Schooner & 15 battoes passt up this river from Sorell to Shambalee with provisions & Stores. heard Genl. Thomas was Dangerous. Genl. Woohoe went to Sorell. a Schooner went by from Sorell to Shambalee. I remaind exreemly Soar espetially in my feet. heard of the Death of Genl. Thomas at Shambalee." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 2
Major General John Thomas, in Quebec only a month after assuming command of the Canadian Campaign, succumbs to the ravages of Smallpox at Chambly. He is buried on the grounds of the fort. Each year on the anniversary of his death, American veterans groups leave their nations flag at its base.

June 4
"part of Genl. Sullivans Briggade passt to Sorell in 56 battoes. Capt. Badlam calld to see me as he was goind to Shambalee. I took Physick to carry off the pox. a pleasant afternoon." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 5
"Last night & this Day I broak out all over as thick as possible which caused a surver itching. we Just heard that Col. St Clear was returning with his party as he saw Six Ships of war at ye 3 rivers & 30 transports with a land army of 4000, also Just heard that Genl. Worcester was gone home.      I think our affairs Look Dark, matters dont go on right, & I dont know how they Should when the Genl. of the army, Schuyler, the Commisary Genl. & Quartermaster Genl. are all in a nother Country, but good conduct & 1 or 2 Victorys in battle may turn the face of things. Doctr. Stewart came from Sorell to see me, Lodgd & is to return in the morning to sorell. Col. Porter Went to sorell. a pleasant Day." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 6
"I had a high fevour last night, my Boddy being all coverd over with the pox, & an extreem fire and itch­ing made me Very uncomfortable. Col. Starks Regt. went to Sorell. this Day Mr. Grant a Cannadien Mert informd. that a large Fleet was arrivd at Quebeck with 15,000 Regular Troops, a part of which were near Sorell. Genl. Thomson wend down the River with 1500 men from Sorell to 3 Rivers, where we heard the Regulars were landing." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 7
"Rested poorly Last Night. the burning & Itching of the pox was very Tedious to bair. This Day I took physick that workt severely, but I was comfortable before night. a pleasant Day."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 8
"this morning we were awaked at day light with the report of Cannon Down the River which continewed with Short Intermissions till about 9 o'clock. the cannonade was Very heavey supposed to be Genl. Thomson ingaged with the Regulars. God give us the victory." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 9
"I rested very well last night, this Day the Pox that came out very fine the 5th, began to turn, & I was better at my Stomach. Col. Pattesson, Majr. Scott & 4 other officers dind with me. Just at evning an Acct was brought that Genl. Thomson had engaged the Regulars at ye 8 Rivers, & got the advantage drov of the main body & had taken about 400 prisoners & was returning with them, his amunition being nearly Expended, and was again attacked by 900 Regulars, who got the better of our troops, killing & taking number, & when the informer came away, the Regulars was persueing & our troops fleeing before them." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
10
"Col. Dehaws & Capt. Nelson & Capt. Butler calld to see me as they were going to Sorell from the Seeders with there army. they complaind greatly of Genl. Arnolds conduct at the Seeders that it was all togeather owing to him that the regular army with the canadians were not cut off & our prisoners retaken. Majr. Sull cam up to St. Ours Sick with the mumps. Capt. Scott came up from Sorell as informd that Genl. Thomson army was returnd to Barkee that they had left about 20 men killd, which was inconsiderable compaird with the loss of the Enemy, which is said to be above one hundred. Genl. Sullivan Sent out orders for 2000 Cannadian militia to go down armd to Sorell to the assistance of our army." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
 
June 11
"I set out from the parish St. Ours for Shambalee in a battoe. I am Very weak & coverd with the scales of the Pox & unfit to travil. Col. Bond & Col. Alden go with me. Our Servants out full with the small pox but not bad. Oliver has it Very light. we Dind at Armarble Ourashe on the west side the River, where we had a fine diner & was kindly Entertained then we went up the River to an old & good farmers where we lodgd & was kindly entertaind."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
12
"went up the River about 6 miles to Mr Ledjuay where we were Very politely Entertained where we lodgd. a fine Day but wind a head."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 13 
"went up the River after Breakfast to Point Oliviers where we Dind at a Mass House with a french Preist & was very agreably Entertaind by the Fryer, Mr. Lotbin­iere. after Diner we went to Shambalee. Col. Hazel & Col. Antle informd me that there was at this place & St. Johns and about them 2900 men Sick, chiefly of the Small pox that belonged to our army, which has broak us so that we are poorly able to defent against so superior a force as we hear is coming against us & that Very nigh."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
14 
"Last Night I lodgd in my Tent without taking any cold, & am very comfortable. I Breakfasted with Genl. Arnold, who Recd a letter while at breakfast from Genl. Sullivan informing that he had recd a letter from Genl. Thomson who was a prisoner with the Regulars, with Col. Erving & Docr McKensey. Col. St. Clear was Just come in to Sorell Just alive thro fatiugue there is about 100 of our men Still missing, but they hourly come scattering in, it is uncertain how many we have lost in this desperate action, it is reported that the 2 french­men Genl. Thomsons guides were Trators, there is but little dependanc to be put upon any of them. we Just now hear that 10,000 of our enemies are landed on an Island oposit to Sorell about one mile distant. our camp is poorly fortified, & our forces not a third in number that the Enemy is said to be, Genl. Burgoin the most Experienced Gen. in the English service Commands them. I am going tomorrow to St. Johns to give directions to fortify there in order to Cover our Retreat, which I think must be soon without a miricle is rought in our favour, I hope we Shall be able to retreat with all our Artillery & Stores to Crown point, which is the best that I can reasonably expect of hope for, there to make a Stand let what will come"-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"About one in the morning, his excellency, general Carlton, came up and immediately ordered the fleet to get under way... about 9 in the evening, reached the shore under the command of brigadier general Nesbit [General William Nesbit], lieutenant colonel of 47th regiment.-- We found the enemy had deserted their lines, and about 10 o'clock the troops took post and lay all night on their arms."--Lt. William Digby. 2
June
15
Montreal is abandoned by the Americans as Benedict Arnold retreats south towards Isle aux Noix. Arnold combines his forces with Sullivan's at Chambly.

Scenes of horror are everywhere as the retreating forces attempt to escape the advancing British. The  ragged army reaches St. John's by the end of June, plagued with vast numbers of sick and dying smallpox victims. A gallant effort is undertaken to transport the ill south to Crown Point in any available vessel. Isle aux Noix becomes a "hell on earth" of suffering and death. Hundreds of troops are buried on the island in unmarked graves. Peter Palmer tells us "It is difficult to conceive a degree of misery greater than that suffered by the invalids during their voyage through the lake." He quotes a Dr. Meyrick as saying "The sight of so much misery, privation, and distress broke my heart, and I wept till I had no more power to weep."3

"we were all Employed in getting Battoes, Artill­ery & Stores up the Rapids & to St. Johns, the army from Sorell came up to Chamblee. I went to St. Johns Laid out and directed some works at St. Johns & rode back to Chamblee. Kept the men at work geting up Battoes, it Raind all night Very hard, Supt. & lodgd with Genl. Sullivan, Col. St. Clair, Col. Vorce at Col. Hazens in the fort Chamblee."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 16
"Sunday. Cleard the fort of all the Stores at Chamblee got the Baggage away. I was orderd to the head of the rapids to forward the Intrenching tools & then to St. trace half way between Chambalee & St. Johns, where I had the most Savere fateague in Loading the Battoes with the Stores & Baggage brought from Chambalee in carts to this place to get them above the Rapids, the Vast No of Men sick & in the most distressing condition with the Small pox is not to be discribed & many officers Runing off Leaving there men by the Side of the river to be taken care of by me or others. about 1 o'clock it was reported that the Regulars were at Chambalee & were coming forward but it provd a mistake but it had the effect of sending great Numbers of officers & Soldiers upon the run to St. Johns, & Some to the Oile of Noix & others could not be Stopt till they got to Crown point."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
17
"At St. John the retreating Americans, after burning the fortifications, embarked for Isle aux Noix, the last man to leave being Arnold who, with the enemy already in sight, shot his horse in the head and pushed off."**

"A scouting party, composed chiefly of Indians fell upon a small party of the 6th Penn. reg't while 'fishing and diverting themselves' and killed and scalped four while six were taken prisoners. A rescue party from the American camp interred the bodies of their murdered comrades at Isle aux Noix, erecting a rude stone bearing this inscription: 'Beneath this humble sod lie Captain Adams, Lieutenant Culbertson, and two Privates of the Sixth Pennsylvania Regiment. Not hirelings but Patriots. They fell not in battle but unarmed. They were basely murdered and inhumanely scalped by the barbarous emissaries of the once just, but now abandoned- Kingdom of Britain.' "**

"Two sloops of war carrying 12 guns each, then lying at Chamble [Chambly], were attempted to be brought up, but found not practicable, on which their guns were taken out, the vessels taken to pieces and rebuilt at St Johns, during which time, other hands were busyily  employed in building the Carlton, a 12 gun schooner, and the Inflexible, a 28 gun frigate, also a floating battery of great strength, carrying mortars, shells &c and 24 pounders; during which the army was encamped as contiguously to the lake as possible."--Lt. William Digby 4

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June 18
"At Isle aux Noix, their last foothold in Canada, were gathered 8,000 officers and men, "the remnant of as fine an army as ever marched into Canada." Crowded together, half the number sick with smallpox, their only food, raw pork, often rancid, unbolted flour and for drinking water only the unwholesome water from the lake they spent eight days of misery."**

"this Morning the Genl. calld a Genl Council, which advised to abandon St. Johns, dismantle the fort and carry off all the Stores of every kind. we immediately Sent off all the Battoes to the Oil of Noix [Isle aux Noix] with the Sick & with Stores, & the Battoes returned before night for more & by 6 o'clock Every article was in the Battoes, the most of which went of & then we set fire to all the buildings on both sides of the river burnt & Distroyed St. Johns & then I came off in the last Battoe with Genl. Arnold, & got up to the Oil of Noix about 12 at Night but had neither Bed or blanket & lay upon the thawt of the Battoe till day light, it was cold."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June
19
"The days (at Isle aux Noix) were intensely hot with heavy dews at night and a camp disorder broke out, from which 20 to 60 in a regiment succumbed each day."**

"this Day a number of Battoes came up that were heavey Loaded to this place bring every kind of thing from St. Johns, which thus far is the most Speedy & good Retreet from a Country that it was not possible for us to command against so great a Superiority of force, Just in our rear. the Sick were orderd of to crown point, with the Doctors & the Carpenters & Smith to go also in the morning."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
20
"this morning I recd orders from Genl. Sullivan to be ready with my bagage & Intrenching tools on bord my battoe to go with him up the Lake to look out a Conven­ient place to fortify or to proceed to Crown Point. about 4 o'clock I left the Oil Oix Noix with orders to go to Crown point with Col. Aldin, Capt. Ayres & Mr. Wins­low the paymaster Genl. with his Millitiary Chests & I with the Intrenching Tools. Lodgd on the East Side the Lake below Iron pint. missquetoes very Thick"-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

" 'At noon Thursday, they began to move the sick to Crown Point in shallow boats, hastily constructed in the spring and now leaky and without awnings. This weary suffering journey from Isle aux Noix to Crown Point occupied five days and nights.' A portion of the troops crossed the site of the present town of Champlain, fording its stream. Among the troops was a drummer boy of seventeen, Pliny Moore, who, attracted by the advantages of the location, resolved, when peace should be restored, to settle there, which plan he was later able to carry out, becoming the first American pioneer and settler of Champlain."**
June
21
"Breakfasted at Iron point or point O Fray [Point au Fer] with Rd. Mr. Barnham. Lodgd on an Island below Cumberland Bay [Isle St. Michel (Crab Island), may also have been Valcour Island]. Dind at the Isle of Mot [Isle la Motte]."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
22
"crosst Cumberland bay in the morning the surf high. Lodgd on the west side the Lake where we were Extreemly tormented with flees." -- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

"Lieut. Frazier [Lt. Alexander Fraser] 9 regt and lieu Scott 24 regt were sent on a party of observation by gen Frazier [Gen. Simon Fraser] to discover if possible what the enemy were about on the lake. They had 12 regulars and about 30 Indians in cannoes . The bark cannoes are the best and will paddle very swift... About 20 miles from St John's near the Isle aux Noix- island of nuts- they fell in with a party of the enemy, and after some fireing, brought them to us prisoners, with the loss only of one Indian and a few wounded. The captains name was Wilson [James Armstrong Wilson], who informed us they were very strong at Crown Point and Ticonderoga, both places of great strength by nature, and neither man nor cannon wanting to make them more so; also their force on the lake was great and much superior, he believed, to any we could bring against them that year."--Lt. William Digby 5

June 23
"Came out a little way as the wind was ahead. Breakfasted at the Split rock. Lodgd on ye West Side the Lake below Crown point 10 miles"-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

June 24
"Came to Crown point about 12 o'clock."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
25
"onloading Battoes & Sending them to Aux Nox"-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
26
"Securing the Stoers & taking Care of the Sick, & Sending Battoes down to the army."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
 
June 28
"his Evning about 5 o'clock the camp was Allarmd by 6 Indians at about 2 Mile distance across the bay who came to the saw mill & carried of one man, but did no other damage. a man died at this place this Day."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
29
"Put the Powder in the Ice House which was fitted up for a Magazine I rais a House for myself to live in."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†
June
30
"Heard by Mr Torey, that Genl. Gates was coming to take the Command of this northan army. the Carpenters geting timber to repair the Stone Barraks in the Fort [the old British fort at Crown Point], the Fateague Men with the train continued geting the Cannon out of the Battoes, with the other Stores.  I Drank Tea with the paymaster & Mrs Tucker, finished a great Oven."-- Col. Jeduthan Baldwin†

Finally collected at Crown Point, the "Army of Canada" is but a shadow of its former self. Of the 5,200 troops encamped at the point, some 2,800 are racked with Smallpox or dysentery and thus unfit for service. Another several hundred unmarked, mass graves are left behind at Crown Point. Thus ends the Canadian Campaign...

Sources/Notes:

** THREE CENTURIES IN THE CHAMPLAIN VALLEY: A COLLECTION OF HISTORICAL FACTS AND INCIDENTS- TERCENTENARY EDITION. 1909: Compiled and Edited by Mrs. George Fuller Tuttle. Saranac Chapter, D.A.R. Plattsburgh, NY.
1
Russell P. Bellico, "SAILS AND STEAM IN THE MOUNTAINS- A Maritime and Military History of Lake George and Lake Champlain," (Fleischmanns, New York: Purple Mountain Press, Ltd., 1992) 131,132
William Digby, James Phinney Baxter, "The British Invasion from the North. The Campaigns of Generals Carleton and Burgoyne, from Canada, 1776-1777, with the Journal of Lieut. William Digby, of the 53d, or Shropshire Regiment of Foot, Illustrated with Historical Notes, by James Phinney Baxter, A.M." (Albany, New York: Joel Munsell's Sons 1887) 113, 114
Peter S. Palmer,  "History of Lake Champlain, from its first exploration by the French in 1609 to the close of the year 1814." (New York: Frank F. Lovell & Company 1886) 100
Digby.; 120
5
Digby.; 125-128
  Jeduthan Baldwin, "The Revolutionary Journal of Col. Jeduthan Baldwin 1775-1778" (Bangor, Maine: The DeBurians 1906)
Illustrations by Benson J. Lossing and Felix Darley: Benson J. Lossing. THE PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION. VOL. I . New York: Harper & Brothers, Publishers. 1850. Courtesy of the Floyd Harwood Collection.

This is the conclusion of TIMELINE, Part III (b) The Great Rebellion: Retreat from Canada

   
The TIMELINE continues HERE

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