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Lake Champlain, Lake George, and Richelieu River
By James P. Millard

PART I (a)-New France and New England:
For God and King
TIME SPAN 1646-1688

Spelling and punctuation in quotes are as found in the original. Black text with underlines indicates a hyperlink.











The Iroquois burn Fort Richelieu. Emboldened, they attack farms and towns throughout New France. 

Jogues visits the lake known as Andiatrocte. He renames what we now know as Lake George Lac du Saint-Sacrement.

June 4
"Father Isaac Jogues with Sieur Bourdon, royal engineer, and some Indians arrived at Fort Orange, where he had formerly been so hospitably received and sheltered for six weeks after his escape from his Mohawk captors."**

June 16
"Departure of Father Jogues and his party from Oneugiowre (Caughnawaga) the first castle of the Mohawks, whither they had gone after their visit to Fort Orange. Presents had been exchanged and the French had received every assurance of future welcome."**

October 17
"Father Jogues, on his return to the Mohawk country, was set upon by savages who believed him responsible for the failure of their crops and sickness of their tribe; was stripped of his clothing and beaten with heavy clubs."**

October 18
"The martyrdom of Father Jogues was completed. As he was entering a wigwam for supper, he was treacherously felled with an axe, his head cut off and stuck on a palisade while his body was flung into the river."**


February 24
The Company of One Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent Associes) is dissolved, having failed in its mission to develop New France (and enrich the nobles and merchants within the group). The challenge of developing New France reverts to King Louis XIV, who appoints a new governor, Augustin de Mézy de Saffray, to oversee the work. New France's new status-that of Colonie Royale, signifies the renewed importance placed by the King on developing the colony.1


French rebuild Fort Richelieu. The plan is to have a series of fortresses along the settled portion of the critical transportation corridor we know today as the Richelieu.








June 19
Four companies of the famed Carignan-Salières regiment land at Quebec. These seasoned troops are a reflection of Louis XVI's determination to protect the small group of habitants in New France. Soon, elements of this crack unit will be stationed on Lake
Construction is begun on yet another fortress along the River of the Iroquois. The French, determined to make this river their own, give it the name Saint-Louis. A later fortress built upon the same location will be called Chambly.

Alarmed by the building of four new forts, the Iroquois send a delegation to Quebec with a peace proposal.
December 29
"' M. Courcelles, the governor of Canada, began his march with scarcely six hundred men, to seek out their inveterate enemies, the Mohawks.' The snow that covered the ground 'although four feet deep, was frozen.' "**






















January 9
"M. de Courcelles started from Quebec with 300 men from the regiments of Carignan-Salières and 200 volunteers, habitants, using sledges drawn by mastiff dogs, for Fort St. Theresa, nine miles above the present village of Chambly. The weather was so severe that the soldiers nearly perished from the cold."**
January 24
"Sieurs de la Forrille, Maximin and Lobiac, Captains of the Carignan regiment, joined the army with sixty men and some habitants but their ranks were so depleted before they reached St. Theresa that four companies had to be taken from the forts on the Richelieu to supply the vacancies..."**


Despite the offer of peace in December, a force of some 600 set out from Ft. Theresa on a daring raid against Mohawk villages in British New York. The troops become lost, have only a minor skirmish with the Mohawk and retreat back to Canada with the Indians in pursuit. At least 60 soldiers die of starvation and exposure or are taken prisoner.

Capt. de Chazy, together with M. de Montagny, M. de Traversy, and Monsieur's Chamot and Morin, on a hunting trip from Fort Ste. Anne across the lake at the mouth of the river there, are attacked by some 60 Mohawk Indians, killed and scalped.  Two companions are taken prisoner. 4

The Iroquois send another delegation to the French capitol to sue for peace.

Fort Ste. Anne, a small fort with log bastions only 144' by 96', is completed on an island near the lower end of Lake Champlain, present day Isle La Motte. Several companies of the crack Carignan-Salières garrison it.
September 28
"In and about Fort St. Anne were collected 600 veterans of the famous Carignan-Salières regiment, while on the mainland an equal number of  volunteers, habitants of New France and 100 naked and painted savages, Huron and Algonquin warriors, were encamped, the savages making night hideous with war songs and dances. All were ready to start on a punitive expedition under de Tracy, against the Mohawks who had broken the treaty made in July at Quebec."**

October 1
"M. de Courcelles, at the head of four of the six hundred veterans of the Carignan-Salières, the habitants, and Huron and Algonquin warriors, encamped at Fort St. Anne, set out on his expedition against the Indian villages on the Mohawk."**
October 3
"The main body of the army at Fort St. Anne, led by the aged, but determined, M. de Tracy, moved off."**


"The rear guard under Sieurs de Chambly and Berthier left St. Anne. The progress of the army was slow, since they dragged two small pieces of cannon and 300 bateaux or bark canoes."**


May 22
The Iroquois again meet in Quebec seeking a Peace treaty.


"General de Tracy returned to France, while many members of his regiment, being offered special inducements to become colonists, remained, giving their names to the settlements, Chambly, Chazy, Bertier, Sorel and others. During the previous winter, at the request of the General, Father Dollier de Casson had come on snowshoes from Montreal to Fort St. Anne, Isle la Motte, where he had celebrated mass and officiated at the burial of thirteen soldiers who had died of the scurvy then prevailing."**


The small French outpost of Fort Ste. Anne on Isle la Motte is abandoned 5 years after it was constructed.


"Quentin Stockwell, while rebuilding his house burned by Indians the year before, was seized and carried, with 17 others, captive to Canada. At Chambly, they were kindly treated by the French who gave them hasty-pudding and milk with brandy and bathed their frozen limbs. From Sorel they were scattered among the Indians but the next year, all but three were redeemed. "**


September 8
"Gov. Dongan, of New York, in a letter to the king, proposed to build a fort at Corlear's Lake (Lake Champlain) at the pass in the lake 150 miles north from Albany (Chimney Point). Corlear, in whose honor the English and Dutch named the lake, had been very kind to captive French and had ransomed them from the Mohawks and returned them to Canada. He was drowned in the lake a little north of Otter Creek, on his way to visit Courcelles in Canada."**

" A formidable party of Iroquois attacked the stone fort at Chambly [note: this is an error, the stone fort at Chambly was not built until 1709- jpm]  and though the garrison made a successful resistance, the flourishing settlement that had sprung up around it was ravaged and several captives taken. Soon the whole country between the St. Lawrence and Richelieu swarmed with savages, 'like the leaves of the forest in number and stronger than the mighty oak,' and the governor, M. de Denonville, was compelled to make peace, which the savages hesitated not to break within a twelfth month."**


French governor Denonville recommends a fort be established at the southern end of Lake Champlain. Tensions rise between the French and English, as Quebec sees what it views as increasing encroachment on the boundaries of New France.

July 26
A force of some 1,300 Mohawk attack down Lake Champlain into Canada. The resulting raid leaves the village of La Chine destroyed. Supposedly over a thousand villagers are killed and 300 taken captive.

"Indian warriors landed on the island of Montreal and, having overpowered a force of 150 Canadians and 50 Indians imprudently sent against them, devastated the whole settlement, killing nearly 1,000 of the inhabitants and carrying 1,200 of them into captivity."**


Guy Omeron Coolidge, "The French Occupation of the Champlain Valley from 1609 to 1759". 1938, 1940. Fleischmanns, New York: Purple Mountain Press, Ltd. Reprint of second edition (1989), with biographical indexes. 21
Joseph J. Kerlidou, "St. Anne of Isle La Motte in Lake Champlain: its history, rules of the confraternity, prayers, novena to St. Anne..." 1895 (Burlington, Vermont: Free Press Association)
 Coolidge., 22, 23

Samuel de Champlain, Jogues Island images: Warwick Stevens Carpenter. The Summer Paradise in History. Albany: General Passenger Department, The Delaware and Hudson Company. 1914. Courtesy of John and Barbara Gallagher.


The TIMELINE continues HERE:

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